Anki 2.0 用户手册

介绍

Anki是一个使记忆变得容易的学习软件。因为它是一个自定义多功能的记忆方式，可以大大减少你的学习时间，也可以大大提高 你的学习容量.

ANKI会帮助那些在日常生活中需要记忆东西的人们。因为它是“内容-未知”模式，支持图像、音频、视频和科学标记（通过 LaTeX），可能性是无限的。例如:

• 学习一门语言

• 备考医学和法律考试

• 记忆人的名字和面孔

• 温习地理学

• 习长诗

• 甚至练习吉他和弦

Anki背后有两个简单的概念:: 动召回测试 间隔重复. 它们不被大多数学习者知晓,尽管这方面科学文献已经存在很多年了。了解它们的工作原理会使你更有效的学习.

主动召回测试

• 召回的模式增强 记忆, 通过持续地增加再次记忆的机会来增强记忆.

• 当我们无法回答一个问题，它告诉我们需要返回到资料再次复习或者重新学习它。

间隔重复

1885年，一位德国的心理学家发表了 间隔效应 . 他观察到, 和在一个时间段集中进行多次学习相比，如果在时间的推移过程中我们有过分散的复习，那么会更有效地记住事情。自1930年代以来已经有许多利用间隔效应来 提高学习效果的建议,被称为记忆.

SuperMemo记忆系统,每次你回答一个问题,你告诉程序你能够记住它或者你完全忘记了、做了一个小错误、记忆出现 障碍、轻松记忆，等等。程序使用反馈来决定最优时间再次向您出示问题。随着每次成功的回忆，你的记忆也变得越来越坚固， 那么这个问题的复习时间也会被越来越拉长，所以您可能在第一次看到一个问题，之后便在3天之后、15天之后、45天之 后，等等。

为什么选择ANKI?

Anki解决了这些问题。Anki的免费客户端可用在很多平台上,所以预计一些因为受到限制而苦苦挣扎的学生和教师可以 不用再担心了。它是开源的,有蓬勃发展的插件库提供给最终用户。它的多平台,可运行在Windows、Mac OSX,Linux / FreeBSD,一些移动设备。而且，和SuperMemo相比，它相当容易使用。

基本术语

卡片

Q: Chemical symbol for oxygen?

Q: Chemical symbol for oxygen?
A: O

Anki检查你是正确的，并且也知道了你的记忆情况，会根据你对这个问题的记忆情况选择一个时间让这个问题再 次出现。

Decks

Anki 中的牌组起始于一个叫“default”（默认）的牌组，任何脱离其它牌组的卡片都会到这里。如果默认牌组（default）为空，而且你还添加了其它牌组，默认牌组就会被隐藏。你也可以将默认牌组重命名，作为它用。.

Decks are best used to hold broad categories of cards, rather than specific topics such as “food verbs” or “lesson 1”. For more info on this, please see the using decks appropriately section.

For information on how decks affect the order cards are displayed in, please see the display order section.

Notes & Fields

When making flashcards, it’s often desirable to make more than one card that relates to some information. For example, if you’re learning French, and you learn that the word “bonjour” means “hello”, you may wish to create one card that shows you “bonjour” and asks you to remember “hello”, and another card that shows you “hello” and asks you to remember “bonjour”. One card is testing your ability to recognize the foreign word, and the other card is testing your ability to produce it.

When using paper flashcards, your only option in this case is to write out the information twice, once for each card. Some computer flashcard programs make life easier by providing a feature to flip the front and back sides. This is an improvement over the paper situation, but there are two major downsides:

• Because such programs don’t track your performance of recognition and production separately, cards will tend not to be shown to you at the optimum time, meaning you forget more than you’d like, or you study more than is necessary.

• Reversing the question and answer only works when you want exactly the same content on each side. This means it’s not possible to display extra info on the back of each card for example.

Anki solves these problems by allowing you to split the content of your cards up into separate pieces of information. You can then tell Anki which pieces of information you want on each card, and Anki will take care of creating the cards for you and updating them if you make any edits in the future.

Imagine we want to study French vocabulary, and we want to include the page number on the back of each cards. We want our cards to look like this:

Q: Bonjour
A: Hello
Page #12

And:

Q: Hello
A: Bonjour
Page #12

In this example, we have three pieces of related information: a French word, an English meaning, and a page number. If we put them together, they’d look like this:

French: Bonjour
English: Hello
Page: 12

In Anki, this related information is called a note, and each piece of information is called a field. So we can say that this type of note has three fields: French, English, and Page.

Card Types

In order for Anki to create cards based on our notes, we need to give it a blueprint that says which fields should be displayed on the front or back of each card. This blueprint is called a card type. Each type of note can have one or more card types; when you add a note, Anki will create one card for each card type.

Each card type has two templates, one for the question and one for the answer. In the above French example, we wanted the recognition card to look like this:

Q: Bonjour
A: Hello
Page #12

To do this, we can set the question and answer templates to:

Q: {{French}}
A: {{English}}<br>
Page #{{Page}}

By surrounding a field name in double curly brackets, we tell Anki to replace that section with the actual information in the field. Anything not surrounded by curly brackets remains the same on each card. (For instance, we don’t have to type “Page #” into the Page field when adding material – it’s added automatically to every card.) <br> is a special code that tells Anki to move to the next line; more details are available in the templates section.

The production card templates work in a similar way:

Q: {{English}}
A: {{French}}<br>
Page #{{Page}}

Once a card type has been created, every time you add a new note, a card will be created based on that card type. Card types make it easy to keep the formatting of your cards consistent and can greatly reduce the amount of effort involved in adding information. They also mean Anki can ensure related cards don’t appear too close to each other, and they allow you to fix a typing mistake or factual error once and have all the related cards updated at once.

To add and edit card types, click the “Cards…” button while adding or editing notes. For more information on card types, please see the Cards and Templates section.

Note Types

Anki allows you to create different types of notes for different material. Each type of note has its own set of fields and card types. It’s a good idea to create a separate note type for each broad topic you’re studying. In the above French example, we might create a note type called “French” for that. If we wanted to learn capital cities, we could create a separate note type for that as well, with fields such as “Country” and “Capital City”.

When Anki checks for duplicates, it only compares other notes of the same type. Thus if you add a capital city called “Orange” using the capital city note type, you won’t see a duplicate message when it comes time to learn how to say “orange” in French.

When you create a new collection, Anki automatically adds some standard note types to it. These note types are provided to make Anki easier for new users, but in the long run it’s recommended you define your own note types for the content you are learning. The standard note types are as follows:

Basic

Has Front and Back fields, and will create one card. Text you enter in Front will appear on the front of the card, and text you enter in Back will appear on the back of the card.

Basic (and reversed card)

Like Basic, but creates two cards for the text you enter: one from front→back and one from back→front.

Basic (optional reversed card)

This is a front→back card, and optionally a back→front card. To do this, it has a third field called “Add Reverse.” If you enter any text into that field, a reverse card will be created. More information about this is available in the Cards and Templates section.

Cloze

A note type which makes it easy to select text and turn it into a cloze deletion (e.g., “Man landed on the moon in […]” → “Man landed on the moon in 1969”). More information is available in the cloze deletion section.

To add your own note types and modify existing ones, you can use Tools → Manage Note Types.

 Note Notes and note types are common to your whole collection rather than limited to an individual deck. This means you can use many different types of notes in a particular deck, or have different cards generated from a particular note in different decks. When you add notes using the Add window, you can select what note type to use and what deck to use, and these choices are completely independent of each other. You can also change the note type of some notes after you’ve already created them.

Collection

Your collection is all the material stored in Anki – your cards, notes, decks, note types, deck options, and so on.

添加材料

下载共享记忆库

Anki入门最简单的方式是下载 他人分享的卡片记忆库：

1. 点击记忆库列表底部的“获取记忆库”按钮；

2. 当你找到了一个感兴趣的记忆库，点击下载按钮 来下载记忆库包；

3. 双击下载的记忆库包将它导入Anki，或者使用 文件→导入。

不要学习你不理解的东西。
--SuperMemo

添加卡片和笔记

vocab check_with_tutor

…那么，你添加的这条笔记将会有两个标签。

Anki检查第一字段的唯一性。因此，如果你在 两张卡片的正面都添加了“苹果”（举个例子），Anki会给出警告。唯一性检查 仅限当前笔记类型，因此，如果你正在学习多种语言，只要你为每种语言使用不同的笔记类型， 当两张卡片的正面相同时也不会被列为重复。

Anki不自动检查其它区域的重复 以提升效率，但是浏览器有“查找重复”功能，你可以定期执行它。

• 保持简单: 卡片越短越容易复习。你 可能会在卡片中放大量信息以防万一，但是复习 会马上变得很痛苦。

• 不要记没有理解的: 如果你正在学习一门语言，试着 避免大串词表。学习语言最好的方式是结合 上下文，即在例句中学习单词。比方说， 假设你在学习电脑课程，如果你尝试记忆 缩略词，你会发现很难取得进步。但是， 如果你花时间去理解缩略词背后的概念， 学习缩略词会变得轻松许多。

添加笔记类型

To create a new type of note, choose Tools → Manage Note Types. Then click “Add” to add a new type of note. You’ll now see another screen that gives you a choice of note types to base the new type on. “Add” means to base the newly created type on one that comes with Anki. “Clone” means to base the newly created type on one that is already in your collection. For instance, if you’d created a French vocab type already, you might want to clone that when creating a German vocab type.

After choosing OK, you’ll be asked to name the new type. The subject material you’re studying is a good choice here – things like “Japanese”, ”Trivia”, and so on. Once you’ve chosen a name, close the Note Types window, and you’ll return to the adding window.

Customizing Fields

To customize fields, click the “Fields…” button when adding or editing a note, or while the note type is selected in the Manage Note Types window.

You can add, remove, or rename fields by clicking the appropriate buttons. To change the order in which the fields appear in this dialog and the add notes dialog, you can use the reposition button, which asks for the numerical position you want the field to have. So if you want to change a field to be the new first field, enter “1”.

 Note Do not use Tags, Type, Deck, Card, or FrontSide as field names, as they are special fields and will not work properly.

The options at the bottom of the screen allow you to edit various properties of the fields to be used when adding and editing the cards. This is not where you customize what appears on your cards when reviewing; for that, please see templates.

Editing Font allows you to customize the font and size used when editing notes. This is useful if you want to make unimportant information smaller, or increase the size of foreign characters which are hard to read. The changes you make here do not affect how cards appear when reviewing: to do that, please see the templates section. If you have enabled the “type in the answer” function, however, the text you type will use the font size defined here. (For information about how to change the actual font face when typing the answer, please see the checking your answer section.)

Sort by this field… tells Anki to show this field in the Sort Field column of the browser. You can use this to sort cards by that field. Only one field can be the sort field at once.

When Remember last input… is checked, Anki will not clear out this field’s content after a note is added. If you find yourself entering the same content into multiple notes, you may find this useful.

Reverse text direction is useful if you are studying languages that display text from right to left (RTL), such as Arabic or Hebrew. This setting currently only controls editing; to make sure the text displays correctly during review, you’ll need to adjust your template.

Changing Deck / Note Type

While adding, you can click on the top left button to change note type, and the top right button to change deck. The window that opens up will not only allow you to select a deck or note type, but also to add new decks or manage your note types.

Using Decks Appropriately

Decks are designed to divide your content up into broad categories that you wish to study separately, such as English, Geography, and so on. You may be tempted to create lots of little decks to keep your content organized, such as “my geography book chapter 1”, or “food verbs”, but this is not recommended, for the following reasons:

• Lots of little decks mean you end up reviewing cards in a recognizable order. Whether it’s because you’re clicking on each deck in turn (which is slow) or you’ve added a number of decks under a single parent deck, you’ll end up seeing all the “chapter 1” or “food verb” cards together. This makes it easier to answer the cards, as you can guess them from the context, which leads to weaker memories. When you need to recall the word or phrase outside Anki, you won’t have the luxury of being shown related content first!

• Anki was not designed to handle many decks (more than several dozen), and it will slow down as you add more – especially if you’re studying on a mobile client. A few extra decks is not going to make a noticeable difference, but if you have many decks the delays will start to add up.

Instead of creating lots of little decks, it’s a better idea to use tags and/or fields to classify your content. Instead of creating a “food verbs” decks for example, you could add those cards to your main language study deck, and tag the cards with “food” and “verb”. Each card can have multiple tags, which means you can do things like search for all verbs, or all food-related vocabulary, or all verbs that are related to food.

For those who like to stay very organized, you can add fields to your notes to classify your content, such as “book”, “page”, and so on. Anki supports searching in specific fields, which means you can do a search for “book:'my book' page:63” and immediately find what you’re looking for.

Anki’s custom study and filtered deck features make this especially powerful, as you can create temporary decks out of search terms. This allows you to review your content mixed together in a single deck most of the time (for optimum memory), but also create temporary decks when you need to focus on particular material, such as before a test. The general rule is that if you always want to be able to study some content separately, it should be in a normal deck, and if you only occasionally need to be able to study it separately (for a test, when under a backlog, etc), tags/fields and filtered decks are better.

学习

学习概述

• 新建表示这些卡片你下载或输入了，但之前从未学习过。

• 学习中表示这些卡片你在近期第一次见过，且仍然需要学习。

• 待复习表示这些卡片你之前已经学习过，但现在需要复习以不遗忘它们。

待学计数和时间估计

 注意 复习数量为队列中需要完成所有卡片的数量，而不是卡片的数量。 如果你为失误卡片设定了多重步伐，当你答错一张卡片时，它会增加到多于一个，因为卡片需要再展示几次。

 注意 Anki为复习间隔额外添加了微小的随机变化，以防止一起加入的且相同评级的卡片扎堆。 这个变化不会显示在时间估计，但会在选择了按钮后被应用。

相关卡片和搁置

Anki只会搁置新的或待复习的相关卡片。 它不会隐藏学习中的卡片，因为时间对于它们非常重要。 另一方面，当你学习一张学习中的卡片时，任何新建/待复习的相关卡片都会被搁置。

Keyboard Shortcuts

Most of the common operations in Anki have keyboard shortcuts. Most of them are discoverable in the interface: menu items list their shortcuts next to them, and hovering the mouse cursor over a button will generally show its shortcut in a tooltip.

When studying, either space or enter will show the answer. When the answer is shown, you can use space or enter to select the Good button. You can use the 1-4 keys to select a specific ease button. Many people find it convenient to answer most cards with space and keep one finger on 1 for when they forget.

The "Study Deck" item in the Tools menu allows you to quickly switch to a deck with the keyboard. You can trigger it with the / key. When opened, it will display all of your decks and show a filter area at the top. As you type characters, Anki will display only decks matching the characters you type. You can add a space to separate multiple search terms, and Anki will show only decks that match all the terms. So “ja 1” or “on1 ja” would both match a deck called “Japanese::Lesson1”.

Falling Behind

If you fall behind in your reviews, Anki will prioritize cards that have been waiting the longest. It does this by taking the 200 cards that have been waiting the longest and showing them to you in a random order up until your daily review limit. This ordering ensures that no cards will be left waiting indefinitely, but it means that if you introduce new cards, their reviews won’t appear until you’ve gotten through your backlog.

If you wish to change the order of the overdue reviews, you can do so by creating a filtered deck.

When you answer cards that have been waiting for a while, Anki factors in that delay when determining the next time a card should be shown. Please see the section on Anki’s spaced-repetition algorithm for more information.

编辑

填空

堪培拉成立于1913年。

堪培拉成立于[...]年。

Anki提供了专门的填空笔记类型，可以方便地创建填空。选择Cloze（填空）笔记类型并在 "Text（文本）"区域（字段）输入文字可创建填空卡片， 然后使用鼠标选定需要隐藏的文本，点击“…”按钮，Anki会替换其为：

堪培拉成立于{{c1::1913}}年。

“c1”部分指句子中的填空部分。 用户可以根据需要创建更多的填空部分。例如，如果 选定“堪培拉”并再次点击“…”按钮，文本会显示如下：

{{c2:: 堪培拉}}成立于{{c1::1913}}年。

堪培拉成立于[...]年。

[...]成立于1913年。

堪培拉::城市成立于1913年。

{{c1::堪培拉::城市}}成立于1913年。

[城市]成立于1913年。

{{c1::堪培拉{{c2::成立}}}}于1913年。

Text1 field: {{c1::堪培拉成立}}于1913年

Text2 field: {{c2::堪培拉}}成立于1913年

Anki将填空看作特殊的笔记类型，不能基于通常 的笔记类型创建。如果需要自定义，请确保原样复制已有的Cloze（填空）类型， 而不是使用其他笔记类型。

输入外来字符和音符

Windows，Mac和Linux为输入大多数语言提供了内建的支持。 使我们不必购买不同的键盘。某些知识卡片程序试图通过 提供一组输入每个外来字符的可点击的按钮组或自建的转换工具 来实现该支持。 但这使得输入速度大大降低。有人 写道

……顺便说一句, 如果你正在学习任何一门带有异国字符的外语， 即使仅仅是西班牙语的ñ, 我鼓励你去了解一下怎样高效地输入这些字符。 当我刚开始学习日语时， 我不知道怎样输入日语字符。我只能复制再粘贴以便制作知识卡片或与人交流。 并且如果我想要输入一些原创的东西， 就意味着我要煞费苦心地寻找， 然后复制粘贴每个字符。 我在美国购买的电脑想要获得日语输入法支持就是一种痛苦 （而且这包括因为安装微软的日语输入法， 还需要从朋友那里借Windows XP磁盘）。但这是绝对超值的。 回想起来， 是我最初开始学习日语的第一步时必须要做的。

 注意 Anki基于的该工具包已经解决了一些输入方法的 麻烦，比如在Mac OS X上按住某些键可以选择重音字符。 所幸的是，通常有其他可以正常工作的输入方法 请针对自己的操作系统探索其他选择。

卡片与模板

• 覆盖记忆库（牌组）选项允许改变当前卡片类型生成的卡片放置的记忆库（牌组）。 默认情况下，卡片被放置在 添加笔记窗口中选择的记忆库（牌组）。如果在此指定记忆库（牌组）， 该卡片类型会放置在用户指定的记忆库（牌组），而不是添加笔记窗口中列出的记忆库（牌组）。 如果需要把卡片分别放入不同的记忆库（牌组）。 （例如当学习一门语言，把默写卡放入一个记忆库（牌组）， 而把辨认卡放入另一个)。 可以再次通过选择覆盖记忆库（牌组）选项检查卡片目前要去那个记忆库（牌组）。

• 浏览器外观选项允许为浏览器的正面和背面列的显示设置不同的（也许是简化的） 模板； 更多信息可查看 浏览器外观

基础模板

{{正面}}

 注意 字段名区分大小写。如果字段名为Front， 写成 {{front}} 将无法正常使用。

{{国家}}的首都叫什么?

{{FrontSide}}

{{背面}}

id=answer的部分告诉Anki问题和答案之间的分界所在。 这使得在较长的卡片中， Anki可以在用户按下 显示答案按钮后自动滚动到答案开头（尤其是在屏幕较小的移动设备上非常有用）。 如果不想在答案开头有水平线， 可以用其他HTML元素比如段落或div来替代。

答案检查

{{母语词}}
{{FrontSide}}

{{外语词}}

{{母语词}}
{{type:外语词}}

 注意 一张卡片只能使用一个拼写对比。 如果将上述文本多次添加并不会起作用， 它也只支持单行文字，所以不能与包含多行文字的区域（字段）比较。

Anki使用等宽字体进行答案比较以便“provided” 和 “correct”这样的词的各部分能对齐。 如果需要改变字体， 可以将以下文本放在样式区的末尾：

code#typeans { font-family: "myfontname"; }

{{cloze:Text}}
{{type:cloze:Text}}
{{Extra}}

 注意 在浏览器的 “预览”对话框中答案输入文本框不会出现。 而在复习或在卡片类型窗口预览时则会显示。

换行

壹

壹 贰

壹<br>

br代码代表"(line) br(eak)[断行]".

{{字段1}}<br>
{{字段2}}

卡片样式

font-family（字体类型）

font-size（字体大小）

text-align（文本对齐）

color（字体颜色）

background-color （背景色）

.card { background-color: yellow; }
.card1 { background-color: blue; }

img { max-width: none; max-height: none; }

img#star { ... }

区域（字段）样式

什么是{{表达}}？

{{Notes}}

<div class=我的样式1>

</div>

<div class=我的样式1>什么是{{表达}}？</div>

{{Notes}}

什么是 <div class=我的样式1>{{表达}}</div>?

{{Notes}}

.card {
font-family: arial;
font-size: 20px;
text-align: center;
color: black;
background-color: white;
}

.card {
font-family: arial;
font-size: 20px;
text-align: center;
color: black;
background-color: white;
}

.我的样式1 {
font-family: ayuthaya;
}

.我的样式1 {
font-family: ayuthaya;
font-size: 30px;
}

提示区域（字段）

{{hint:我的字段}}

 注意 现在还不能将提示用于音频 —  因为无论是否点击提示链接，音频都会播放。

特殊字段

笔记标签: {{Tags}}

FrontSide字段不会包含卡片正面的音频。 如果需要卡片的正反两面都有同一段音频， 就需要同样在卡片背面手动添加音频区域（字段）。

卡片的生成与删除

Anki不会创建空白正面的卡片。 因此如果“我的字段”为空，并且一张卡片的正面模板中只包含这个区域（字段）， 那么它就不会被创建。

Anki在卡片生成时不会考虑特殊字段或非字段文本。 因此如果正面模板如下， 在“国家”字段为空的情况下，不会生成卡片:

{{国家}}在地图上的那个地方？

媒体与LaTeX引用

Anki不会为媒体引用而扫描模板，因为这样很缓慢。 这对在模板中包含媒体的情况也有影响。

静态引用声音/图像

1. 重命名文件使其以下划线开头，如“_logo.jpg”。 下划线提示Anki该文件被模板使用并在分享记忆库（牌组）时同时导出。

2. 在卡片正面或背面模板添加该媒体文件的引用，如：

<img src="_logo.jpg">

区域（字段）引用

<img src="{{Expression}}.jpg">

[sound:{{Word}}]

${{Field 1}}$

条件替换

文本始终显示。

{{#字段名}}

{{/字段名}}

{{^字段名}}

{{/字段名}}

{{#Tags}}标签：{{Tags}}{{/Tags}}

{{#笔记}}<span style="color:blue;">{{/笔记}}
{{要设定格式的字段}}
{{#笔记}}</span>{{/笔记}}

{{表达}}
{{笔记}}

{{#表达}}
{{表达}}
{{笔记}}
{{/表达}}

{{#表达}}
{{#笔记}}
{{表达}}
{{笔记}}
{{/笔记}}
{{/表达}}

{{#表达}}
{{表达}}
{{/表达}}
{{笔记}}

{{#表达}}
{{#笔记}}
{{表达}}
{{笔记}}
{{/笔记}}
{{/表达}}

{{第三字段}}

填空模板

• Anki在正面模板查找一个或多个填空替换， 如 {{cloze:字段名}}.

• 然后在字段名区域（字段）中查找所有填空引用，如 {{c1::文本}}.

• 对每一个单独的序号会产生一张卡片。

{{cloze:Text}}

{{#c1}}
{{提示1}}
{{/c1}}

{{#c2}}
{{提示2}}
{{/c2}}

其他HTML代码

http://example.com/search?q=要查的词

{{表达}}

<a href="http://example.com/search?q={{表达}}">在词典中查询</a>

HTML剥离

<a href="http://example.com/search?q=<b>要查的词</b>">在词典中查询</a>

<a href="http://example.com/search?q={{text:表达}}">在词典中查询</a>

RTL（自右至左的）文本

<div dir=rtl>{{FieldThatHasRTLTextInIt}}</div>

特定平台CSS

Anki定义某些允许为不同平台而定义样式的特殊CSS类。 下面的例子演示了怎样根据复习的设备改变字体：

.win .jp { font-family: "MS Mincho"; }
.mac .jp { font-family: "Hiragino Mincho Pro"; }
.linux .jp { font-family: "Kochi Mincho"; }
.mobile .jp { font-family: "Hiragino Mincho ProN"; }

<div class=jp>{{Field}}</div>

字体安装

1. 重命名文件，在开头添加下划线， 变成如“_arial.ttf”。添加下划线可以提示Anki该文件将用于模板， 就不会在检查未使用的媒体时被删除。

2. 在计算机文件浏览器，进入“我的文档”文件夹， 找到里面的Anki文件夹，再找到名为“用户1”的文件夹 （如果重命名或添加过用户配置文件，则为自定义用户配置名）。

3. 在此文件夹中，应该会找到名为collection.media的文件夹。 将重命名后的文件拖入该文件夹。

1. 点击主窗口顶部的 添加 按钮， 然后选择左上角的按钮选择需要修改的笔记类型。

2. 点击 卡片...按钮。

3. 在样式区的底部，添加下面的文本 （在最后一个"}"字符后)， 将"_arial.ttf"替换为复制到媒体文件夹的文件的名称：

@font-face { font-family: myfont; src: url('_arial.ttf'); }
 注意 只修改"arial"部分而不是"myfont"部分。

 注意 请确保文件名准确匹配。 如果文件叫arial.TTF，而在模板中写为arial.ttf，则不会生效。

Mac中的字体

vl <span class="mystyle">{{字段名}}</span>

.mystyle { font-family: myfont; }
.mac .mystyle { font-family: Helvetica; }

Javascript

（译注：CSS类允许使用UTF-8字符，即可支持UTF-8中文，本章中部分CSS类为便于阅读译为中文，但网上文章不建议使用中文命名CSS类。 ）

配置文件与偏好设置

配置文件

 注意 配置文件的目的是能为不同用户所使用， 而每个AnkiWeb账户在同步时则只能保留一个配置文件。 如果只为分割自己的内容，应该使用单独的记忆库（牌组）而不是使用单独的配置文件， 除非是为了进行试验而修改设定、 同时又不想将这些改变同步到其他设备。

偏好设置

Anki默认以JPG格式粘贴剪贴板上的图像，以节省磁盘空间。 可以使用 粘贴剪贴板图像为PNG（把剪贴板图像保存为PNG）选项以改粘贴为PNG图像。 PNG图像支持透明背景和无损， 但常会导致更大的文件体积。

记忆库（牌组）选项

Anki允许不同记忆库（牌组）共享选项设置， 可以方便地迅速就可以为多个记忆库（牌组）更新设置。 为此，选项被集合为 选项组。默认情况，所有新创建的记忆库（牌组）都使用相同的选项组， 而从早期版本的Anki中导入的记忆库（牌组）则有单独的选项组。 如果想要仅改变一个记忆库（牌组）的设置， 点击（选项窗口）右上角的齿轮图标可以添加一个新的选项组。

 注意 记忆库（牌组）选项没有追溯性。例如，改变控制卡片回想失败后的延迟的选项时， 在改变选项之前回想失败的卡片会仍然使用原先的延后信息， 而不是修改后的。

New Cards

 注意 如果已经完成当前学习内容，Anki默认会提前20分钟显示要学的卡片。 提前学习的时间量可在 首选项... 设置。 需要留意的是，在这种情况下，记忆库（牌组）界面和学习界面中到期卡片的计数会有所不同。 记忆库（牌组）界面不会将计划外的卡片算入， 但学习界面中正相反（计入的为“正在进行的课程”--译注）。如此计算是为了方便用户分辨那些记忆库（牌组）更需要引起重视。

 注意 Anki对短步长和跨越一天的步长的处理方式是不同的。 短步长的卡片会在比如复习时比其他正在等待的卡片优先在延迟时间结束后立即显示。 这样是为了尽可能快的复习用户要求的卡片。 相比而言， 跨越一天的卡片则是按每天基础安排进度。 当第二天进行学习时， 日常学习的卡片不会首先显示，因为那会使开始的复习周期非常困难。 相反，在复习完成后卡片会显示。 它们会因为内部处理的方式被计入复习而不是学习。

 Note When you select random order, Anki will randomize your notes, keeping the cards of a given note close together. The cards of a given note are shown in the order their card types appear in, so that siblings are introduced consistently - otherwise you could end up in a state where some notes had all their cards introduced and other notes had only one or two. Please see the "bury related" option below for more info.

 注意 学习新卡片会临时增加每天需要复习的数量， 因为在学习间隔能够明显延长之前， 新学习的材料需要重复一定次数。 如果用户每天稳定地学习20张新卡片， 可以粗略地预期到的是，每天的复习量约为200张卡片。 每天引入较少的新卡片可以降低复习的需求量，或者可以在复习负担降低前关闭显示新卡片。 不止一名Anki用户在最初使用该程序的几天里兴奋地学习了上百张新卡片后， 然后就被复习量所渐渐压垮。

Reviews

SuperMemo网站建议使用适当的乘数以得到期望的卡片保留率。 他们总结公式如下：

log(期望保留%) / log(当前保留%)

log(90%) / log(85%) = 0.65

 注意 Review cards are always shown in random order. If you wish to see them in a different order, you can use a filtered deck. More specifically, Anki randomizes reviews by grabbing batches of 50 cards in the order that they exist in the database, randomizing each batch, then putting them together. This means that there is a slight bias towards older cards being shown first, but it prevents individual cards from showing up in a predictable order.

Lapses

When you forget a review card, it is said to have lapsed. The default behaviour for lapsed reviews is to reset the interval to 1 (ie, make it due tomorrow), and put it in the learning queue for a refresher in 10 minutes. This behaviour can be customized with the options listed below.

If you leave the steps blank, Anki will not place the card back in the learning queue, and it will be rescheduled as a review with its new interval determined by the settings below.

 Note The new interval is determined when you answer "Again" to a review card, not when the card finishes its relearning steps. For this reason, the "Good" and "Easy" buttons during relearing do not alter the interval again - they only control which step you are on. If there is only a single step (the default), the "Easy" button will be hidden, since it would accomplish the same thing as the "Good" button. If you have 2 or more steps, "Easy" is not hidden, to allow you to graduate cards from the queue before all of their steps are finished.

New interval controls how much Anki should reduce the previous interval by. If the card had a 100 day interval, the default of 0% would reduce the interval to 0 (but see the next option). If you set this option to 20%, the card would have its interval reduced to 20 days instead.

Minimum interval allows you to apply a minimum limit to the above option. The default setting says that lapses should be reviewed one day later. The interval must be 1 day or more.

The leech options control the way Anki handles leeches. Please see the leech section for more information.

General

Anki monitors how long it takes you to answer each question so that it can show you how long was spent studying each day. The time taken does not influence scheduling. If you take longer than 60 seconds, Anki assumes you have walked away from your computer or have been distracted, and limits the recorded time to 60 seconds, so that you don’t end up with inaccurate statistics. The ignore answer times… option allows you to adjust the cutoff threshold. The minimum cutoff is 30 seconds.

If show answer timer is checked, Anki will display the current time taken for each card in the study area.

By default, Anki automatically plays audio on the front and back of cards. If you uncheck automatically play audio, Anki will not play audio until you click the replay audio button.

The when answer shown, replay both question and answer audio option controls what happens when you choose to replay audio while the answer is shown. Please note that it does not control what happens when you show the answer; for that please see this section.

Description

This section allows you to edit the deck description, which is shown in the study overview. The description is automatically set when downloading shared decks. You can delete all the text in the description if you no longer want to see it in the study overview area.

You can also use HTML in the description—anything that works on a note should be valid.

AnkiWeb and Synchronization

Setup

To start syncing your collection across devices, click the sync button (the top right one on the main screen), or press y on your keyboard. You’ll be prompted for your AnkiWeb ID and password, which you created in the signup process.

When you synchronize your collection for the first time, Anki will not be able to merge the content stored on AnkiWeb and the content stored on your computer, so you’ll need to choose which side you’d like to keep. Once the initial setup is completed however, Anki will be able to merge changes from multiple locations with a few exceptions.

 Note If you have multiple people using Anki on one machine and have created a profile for each user, each user will need to create their own AnkiWeb account to sync with. If you attempt to synchronize multiple profiles with a single AnkiWeb account, you will lose data.

Automatic Syncing

Once syncing is enabled, Anki will automatically sync each time your collection is closed or opened. If you would prefer to synchronize manually, you can disable automatic syncing in Anki’s preferences.

Media

Anki will synchronize any sounds and images used by your notes. It will notice when media has been added or removed from your media folder, but will not notice if you have edited some existing files without adding or removing any. To get your edits noticed, you need to add or remove a file as well.

 Note If you’re running Anki off a USB flash drive, you should use an NTFS file system, as Anki may not be able to detect media changes on a FAT32 filesystem.

Conflicts

Reviews and note edits can be merged, so if you review or edit on two different devices before syncing, Anki will preserve your changes from both locations. If the same card has been reviewed in two different locations, both reviews will be marked in the revision history, and the card will be kept in the state it was when it was most recently answered.

There are certain changes that Anki is unable to merge. These mainly relate to the format of notes: things like adding a new field, or removing a card template. When you perform an operation that can’t be merged, Anki will warn you, and give you the option of aborting the operation. If you choose to continue, you’ll be asked to choose whether to keep the local copy or the copy on AnkiWeb when your collection is next synchronized.

If you wish to force a full upload or download (for example, because you accidentally deleted a deck on one side and want to restore the deck rather than having its deletion synchronized), you can check the "On next sync, force changes in one direction" box in Tools>Preferences>Network, then sync as usual. (You’ll be given the option to choose which side you want to use.)

Proxies

Anki syncs over secure HTTP connections. If you need a proxy to access the internet, Anki should automatically pick up your system proxy settings if you’re on Windows or OS X, and will honour the HTTP_PROXY environment variable if you’re on another platform.

To override the system proxy settings on Windows or OS X, define a HTTP_PROXY environmental variable that points to the proxy server. It will look like:

http://user:pass@proxy.company.com:8080

If your username or password contains an @ (eg user@workdomain.com), you need to change it to %40, like so:

http://user%40workdomain.com:pass@proxy.company.com:8080

 Note The toolkit Anki is built on is unfortunately not currently able to pick up your proxy username and password from your system settings. This means that if you use a proxy that requires authentication, syncing will fail. In this case, you will need to use an environmental variable that defines your proxy details as described above, or use a personal proxy server that you route traffic through, which in turn connects to the upstream proxy that requires authentication.

Browser

The browser (which has nothing to do with web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox) allows you to search through your cards and notes and edit them. It is opened by clicking on Browse in the main window, or by pressing b on your keyboard. It is comprised of three sections: the sidebar on the left, the card list on the top right, and the current note on the bottom right. By positioning the mouse between two sections, it is possible to click and drag to expand one section and shrink another.

Sidebar

The sidebar on the left allows quick access to common search terms. Various search terms as described below are listed, along with all deck names and tag names. Clicking on an item will search for it.

You can hold down ctrl (command on a Mac) and click in order to append the clicked item to the current search with an AND condition, instead of starting a new search. If you wanted to show learning cards that were also in the German deck for instance, you could click on "Learning", then ctrl+click on "German".

You can hold down shift to create an OR search instead of an AND (for example, you could click one deck, then shift-click another to show cards from either of the decks in the same view).

You can hold down alt (option on a Mac) in order to reverse the search (prepend a -) (for instance, to show all cards in a current deck that do not have a certain tag).

To remove tags that are not used by any notes, use Tools>Check Database from the main window.

Searching

Above the card list is a search box. You can type in various things there to search for cards.

Simple searches

When you type some text into the search box, Anki finds matching notes and displays their cards. Anki searches in all fields of the notes, but does not search for tags (see later in this section for how to search for tags). Some examples:

dog

search for "dog" - will match words like "doggy" and "underdog" too

dog cat

finds notes with both "dog" and "cat", such as "a dog and cat"

dog or cat

finds notes with either "dog" or "cat"

dog (cat or mouse)

finds notes with dog and cat, or dog and mouse

-cat

finds notes without the word "cat".

-cat -mouse

finds notes with neither "cat" nor "mouse".

-(cat or mouse)

same as the above.

"a dog"

finds notes with the exact phrase "a dog" on them

-"a dog"

finds notes without the exact phrase "a dog"

d_g

finds notes with d, <a letter>, g, like dog, dig, dug, and so on.

d*g

finds notes with d, <zero or more letters>, g, like dg, dog, dung, etc.

Things to note from the above:

• Search terms are separated by spaces.

• When multiple search terms are provided, Anki looks for notes that match all of the terms.

• You can use "or" if you only need one of the terms to match.

• You can prepend a minus sign to a term to find notes that don’t match.

• If you want to search for something including a space or parenthesis, enclose it in quotes.

• You can group search terms by placing them in parentheses, as in the dog (cat or mouse) example. This becomes important when combining OR and AND searches — in the example, with the parentheses, it matches either dog cat or dog mouse, whereas without them it would match either dog and cat or mouse.

• Anki is only able to search within formatting in the sort field you’ve configured. For example, if you add "example" to one of your fields, this will not be matched when searching for "example" unless that field is the sort field.

Limiting to a field

You can also ask Anki to match only if a particular field contains some text. Unlike the searches above, searching on fields requires an exact match by default.

front:dog

find notes with a Front field of exactly "dog". A field that says "a dog" will not match.

front:*dog*

find notes with Front field containing dog somewhere

front:

find notes that have an empty Front field

-front:

find notes that have a non-empty Front field

front:*

find notes that have a Front field, empty or not

Tags, decks, cards and notes

tag:animal

find notes with the tag "animal"

tag:none

find notes with no tags

tag:ani*

find notes with tags starting with ani

deck:french

find cards in a French deck, or subdecks like French::Vocab

deck:french -deck:french::*

find cards in French, but not subdecks

deck:"french vocab"

searching when a deck has a space

"deck:french vocab"

also ok

deck:filtered

filtered decks only

-deck:filtered

normal decks only

card:forward

search for Forward cards

card:1

search for cards by template number - eg, to find the second cloze deletion for a note, you’d use card:2

note:basic

search for cards with a Basic note type

Card types

is:due

review cards and learning cards waiting to be studied

is:new

new cards

is:learn

cards in learning

is:review

reviews (both due and not due) and lapsed cards

is:suspended

cards that have been manually suspended

is:buried

cards that have been buried, either siblings or manually

Cards that have lapsed fall into several of these categories, so it may be useful to combine them to get more precise results:

is:learn is:review

cards that have lapsed and are awaiting relearning

-is:learn is:review

review cards, not including lapsed cards

is:learn -is:review

cards that are in learning for the first time

Card properties

prop:ivl>=10

cards with interval of 10 days or more

prop:due=1

cards due tomorrow

prop:due=-1

cards due yesterday that haven’t been answered yet

prop:due>-1 prop:due<1

cards due between yesterday and tomorrow

prop:reps<10

cards that have been answered less than 10 times

prop:lapses>3

cards that have moved into relearning more than 3 times

prop:ease!=2.5

cards easier or harder than default

Note that due only matches review cards and learning cards with an interval of a day or more: cards in learning with small intervals like 10 minutes are not included.

The check is made against card creation time rather than note creation time, so cards that were generated within the time frame will be included even if their notes were added a long time ago.

rated:1

rated:1:2

rated:7:1

cards answered Again (1) over the last 7 days

rated:31:4

cards answered Easy (4) in the last month

For speed, rating searches are limited to 31 days.

Note and card IDs

nid:1000000000000

all cards of the note with given note ID

cid:1000000000000

the card with given card ID

Note and card IDs can be found in the card info dialog in the browser. These searches may also be helpful when doing add-on development or otherwise working closely with the database.

Card List

The card list displays cards that match the current search.

The columns are configurable: right click on one (or ctrl+click on a Mac) to choose which columns you’d like to see. You can drag columns to reorder them. Clicking on a column will sort by that column; click again to reverse the sort order. Not all columns can be sorted on.

 Note The due column behaves differently for different types of cards. New cards show a number rather than a due date, which indicates the order the new cards will be presented in. Cards in (re)learning and reviews will both show a due date, but when sorting they are first grouped by type and then sorted by date.
 Note The "edited" and "changed" columns sound the same but track different things. "Edited" tracks the last time changes were made to the note (e.g., when the content of a field was edited), while "changed" tracks the last time changes were made to the card (e.g., when you reviewed the card and the review history and interval were updated).

When you click on a card, its note will be shown in the bottom section. If you drag the mouse or hold ctrl or command to select multiple cards, the editor will be temporarily hidden. Various operations (such as changing the deck) can operate on multiple cards at once.

The background colour will change depending on the card. Marked cards are a shade of purple. Suspended cards are a shade of yellow. For more information about marked and suspended cards, please see editing and more.

One of the available columns is called the sort field. Anki allows you to choose one field from each type of note to be used for sorting. You can change the sort field by clicking on "Fields…" in the current note section.

The question and answer columns display what you’d see on the question and answer while reviewing, except the answer column will strip the question part for clarity. You can also choose a custom format in the card type editor instead of showing what would be seen during review.

Current Note

You can see a preview of what the currently selected card would look like when reviewing by clicking the "preview" button next to the search box. Note that this will not display any type answer fields on your cards, which makes it easier to preview cards quickly.

Toolbar

Up the top of the browser window is the toolbar.

Info shows various information about the currently selected card, including its review history. For more information, see the statistics section.

Mark and Suspend are documented in editing and more.

Change Deck allows you to move cards to a different deck. Cards can be placed in different decks, so if you want to move all cards in a note, you should first use Edit > Select Notes.

Add Tags and Remove Tags allow you to add or remove tags from notes in bulk. To remove unused tags from the list on the left, use Tools>Check Database from the main window.

Delete removes the selected card(s) and their notes. It is not possible to remove individual cards, as individual cards are controlled by the templates.

Find and Replace

This option (Edit>Find and Replace) allows you to replace text in the cards you have selected. The regular expression option allows you to perform complex replacements. For example, given the following text on a card:

<img src="pic.jpg">

Searching for:

<img src="(.+)">

And replacing with the regexp:

\1

Will change the card to:

pic.jpg

A full discussion on regular expressions is outside the scope of this document. There are a number of tutorials available on the web. Please see http://docs.python.org/library/re.html for the particular format Anki uses.

Finding Duplicates

You can use the Edit>Find Duplicates option to search for notes that have the same content. When you open the window, Anki will look at all of your note types and present a list of all possible fields. If you want to look for duplicates in the "Back" field, you’d select it from the list and then click "Search".

Unlike the check that happens when you add cards manually, the duplicate finding feature is not limited to a single note type. This means that by default, it will search in all note types that have the field you provided.

The optional limit text box allows you to narrow down where Anki will look for duplicates. If you only want to search for duplicates in the "French Vocab" and "French Verbs" note types, you would enter:

note:'french vocab' or note:'french verbs'

Or you might want to look only for duplicates in a particular deck, so you could use:

deck:'myDeck'

The search syntax is the same as used when searching in the browser. Please see the searching section for more information.

You can click one of the links in the search results list to display the duplicate notes in that set. If the search brings up a large number of duplicates, you may wish to instead click the Tag Duplicates button, which will tag all matching notes with "duplicate." You can then search for this tag in the browser and handle them all from the same screen.

Some other items in the Edit menu:

Reschedule allows you to move cards to the end of the new card queue, or reschedule them as a review card on a given date. The second option is useful if you have imported already-learnt material, and you want to start it off with higher initial intervals. For example, choosing 60 and 90 will give all the imported cards an initial interval of 2 to 3 months.

The card’s revision history is not cleared when rescheduling: rescheduling changes the current state of a card, but not its history. If you want to hide the history, you will need to export your notes as a text file, delete the notes, and then import the text file again, creating new notes.

Reposition allows you to change the order new cards will appear in. You can find out the existing positions by enabling the due column, as described in the card list section above. If you run the reposition command when multiple cards are selected, it will apply increasing numbers to each card in turn. By default the number increases by one for each card, but this can be adjusted by changing the "step" setting. The Shift position of existing cards option allows you to insert cards between currently existing ones, pushing the currently existing ones apart. For instance, if you have five cards and you want to move 3, 4, and 5 between 1 and 2, selecting this setting would cause the cards to end up in the order 1, 3, 4, 5, 2. By contrast, if you turn this option off, 2 and 3 will get the same position number (and it will thus be random which one comes up first).

Change Note Type allows you to convert the selected notes from one type to another. For example, imagine you have a Russian note type and a Computer note type, and you accidentally added some computer-related text into a Russian note. You can use this option to fix that mistake. The scheduling of cards is not affected.

Select Notes takes the currently selected cards, finds their notes, and then selects all cards of those notes. If your notes have only one card, this does nothing.

The Go menu exists to provide keyboard shortcuts to jump to various parts of the browser, and to go up and down the card list.

Filtered Decks & Cramming

When you study a regular deck in Anki, only a limited number of cards are shown: the cards Anki thinks you’re about to forget, and a daily limit of new cards. This is generally useful, as it ensures you don’t spend more time studying than necessary. But sometimes it can be useful to step outside of these normal limits, such as when you need to revise for a test, focus on particular material, and so on. To make this possible, Anki provides a different type of deck called a filtered deck.

Filtered decks offer a lot of possibilities. They can be used for previewing cards, cramming cards before a test, studying particular tags, catching up on a backlog with a particular sort order, reviewing ahead of schedule, going over the day’s failed cards, and more.

Custom Study

The easiest way to create a filtered deck is with the Custom Study button, which appears at the bottom of the screen when you click on a deck. It offers some convenient presets for common tasks like reviewing the cards you’ve failed that day. It will create a filtered deck called "Custom Study Session" and automatically open it for you.

If an existing "Custom Study Session" deck exists, it will be emptied before a new one is created. If you wish to keep a custom study deck, you can rename it from the deck list.

Here is a summary of each of the options:

Increase today’s new card limit

Add more new cards to the deck you are currently studying. Note that unlike other options, this does not create a new filtered deck, it modifies the existing deck.

Increase today’s review card limit

If not all reviews due today were shown due to the daily review limit, this option allows you to show more of them. Like with the new cards option, this modifies the existing deck.

Review forgotten cards

Show all cards that you’ve answered Again (1) to within a number of days you specify.

Show cards that will be due in the near future (a number of days you specify). This is useful for working through some of your older cards before a vacation, but it will not help with cards you have learnt recently. Please see the reviewing ahead section below for more info.

Preview new cards

Show cards that you have recently added.

Study by card state or tag

Select a certain number of cards from the current deck to study. You can choose to select new cards only, due cards only, or all cards; after you click "Choose Tags", you can also limit the selected cards by tags. If you wish to see all the cards in the deck (for instance, to study before a big test), you can set the number of cards to more than the number of cards in the deck.

Home Decks

When a card is moved to a filtered deck, it retains a link to the deck it was in previously. That previous deck is said to be the card’s home deck.

Cards automatically return to their home deck after they are studied in the filtered deck. This can be after a single review, or after multiple reviews, depending on your settings.

It is also possible to move all cards back to their home decks at once:

• The "Empty" button in the study overview moves all cards in the filtered deck back to their home deck, but does not delete the empty filtered deck. This can be useful if you want to fill it again later (using the Rebuild button).

• Deleting a filtered deck does the same thing as "Empty" does, but also removes the emptied deck from the deck list. No cards are deleted when you delete a filtered deck.

 Note In the current implementation, if you empty or delete a filtered deck while cards are still in learning, they will be turned back into new cards.

Creating Manually

Advanced users can create filtered decks with arbitrary search strings, instead of relying on set presets. To create a filtered deck manually, choose Create Filtered Deck from the Tools menu.

When you click the Build button, Anki finds cards that match the settings you specified, and temporarily moves them from their existing decks into your new filtered deck for study.

If you wish to fetch cards again using the same filter options (for instance, if you want to study all cards with a particular tag every day), you can use the Rebuild button at the bottom of the deck’s overview screen.

The search area controls what cards Anki will gather. All of the searches possible in the browser are also possible for filtered decks, such as limiting to tags, finding cards forgotten a certain number of times, and so on. Please see the searching section of the manual for more information on the different possibilities.

The limit option controls how many cards will be gathered into the deck. The order you select controls both the order cards are gathered in, and the order they will be reviewed in. If you select "most lapses" and a limit of 20 for example, then Anki will show you only the 20 most lapsed cards.

For efficiency reasons, if your cram deck contains more than 1000 cards, only 1000 cards will be shown as due on the deck list and study screens.

Order

The "cards selected by" option controls the order that cards will appear in. If the maximum number of cards you select is lower than the number of cards that match the filter criteria, Anki will exclude the cards at the end of this sorted list first.

Oldest seen first

Display cards that you haven’t seen in reviews for the longest time first.

Random

Randomize the order of all cards that match the filter criteria (use no set order).

Increasing intervals

Display cards that have the smallest interval first.

Decreasing intervals

Display cards that have the largest interval first.

Most lapses

Display cards that you have failed the most times first.

Display cards that you added first (have the earliest creation date) first.

Order due

Display cards with the earliest due date first.

Latest seen first

Display cards that you’ve seen most recently in reviews first.

Relative overdueness

Display cards that are most overdue in relation to their current interval first (for instance, a card with a current interval of 5 days overdue by 2 days displays before a card with a current interval of 5 years overdue by a week). This is useful if you have a large backlog that may take some time to get through and want to review the cards you’re most in danger of forgetting first.

Steps & Returning

Please see the section on learning as a reminder of how steps work.

By default, Anki will use the steps of a card’s home deck. If a new card would normally be reviewed twice when being learnt, the same thing will happen when you study it in a filtered deck.

Cards return to their home deck when (re)learning is complete. Thus if you have 3 learning steps, a new card will return to its home deck upon three presses of "Good" or a single press of "Easy".

The custom steps option allows you to override the home deck’s steps and provide your own steps instead. The provided steps apply to both cards being learnt, lapsed reviews, and reviews ahead of time.

Counts

In a filtered deck, reviews that were already due are displayed as the review count as normal. Learning cards and non-due reviews are counted in the new card count, due to how the underlying implementation works.

Due Reviews

If the filtered deck includes cards that were due for review, they will be shown like they would have been in their original deck - they appear in the review card count at the bottom of the screen, and there are four choices for how well you remembered. Upon a correct answer, the card will be moved back to its home deck, and its next delay adjusted using the home deck’s settings. If you forget the card, it will be shown according to the relearning steps defined in the home deck.

If your search included cards that are not due, Anki will show the reviews ahead of time.

Anki uses a special algorithm for these reviews that takes into account how early you are reviewing. If the cards were almost due to be shown, they will be given a new delay similar to what they would have received if you had reviewed them on time. If the cards are reviewed soon after they were scheduled however, their new delay will be similar to their previous delay. This calculation works on a sliding scale.

 Note Because reviewing a card shortly after it is scheduled has little impact on scheduling (eg, a card due tomorrow with a one day interval will remain due tomorrow if reviewed early), the "review early" custom study setting is not appropriate for repeated use. If used to go through a week’s worth of cards before a trip, the mature cards will be rescheduled into the future and the new cards will remain at small intervals, because you don’t know them well enough for them to be rescheduled further. If you review early again the next day, all you’ll end up doing is going through those same new cards again, to little benefit.

Early reviews are included in the new card count rather than the review count, and will be shown according to the number of relearning steps defined in the home deck (unless you have provided custom steps). This means that if you have customized the number of relearning steps in the home deck, the non-due card may be shown more than once.

If you have multiple steps, Anki will only consider the first answer when deciding the next delay, and like relearning in normal decks, "Good" and "Easy" differ only in the step change and not the resulting delay.

Rescheduling

By default, Anki will return cards to their home decks with altered scheduling based on your performance in the filtered deck. If you disable the reschedule cards based on my answers option, Anki will return the cards in the same state they were in when they were moved into the filtered deck. This is useful for quickly flipping through material.

If you have disabled rescheduling, the "Good" and "Easy" buttons will display no time above them when pressing them would cause the card to return to its home deck with its original scheduling.

Please note that new cards are returned to the end of the new card queue, rather than the start of it.

Catching Up

Filtered decks can be useful for catching up when you’ve fallen behind in your reviews. One Anki user describes the way they use the filtered decks to catch up as follows:

I did this for a backlog of 800 cards with filtered subdecks. Worked very well for me.

1. Just Due filter with: "is:due prop:due>-7"
2. Over Due filter with: "is:due prop:due<=-7"

The Just Due deck will then contain cards that became due in the past week. That's the deck you should study every day as it gets the cards that become due regularly. With this you can study as if there wasn't any backlog.

The Over Due deck will contain your backlog, cards which you didn't study in time. You can study them the same way you would study new cards. They go back into the regular cards, so the number of overdue will never grow as long as you keep your Just Due deck in check.

How long it takes depends on how many overdue cards you study each day in addition to the ones that become due regularly. You can still motor through them when you feel like it - or you can do a specific number per day like you would for new cards. Up to you.

Leeches

Leeches are cards that you keep on forgetting. Because they require so many reviews, they take up a lot more of your time than other cards.

Anki can help you identify leeches. Each time a review card lapses, a counter is increased. When that counter reaches 8, the note is tagged as a leech, and the card is suspended. The threshold, and whether to suspend or not, can be adjusted in the deck options.

Anki will continue to issue leech warnings periodically for a difficult card. The warning interval is half the initial leech threshold. That is, if you have Anki configured to warn at 8 lapses, future warnings will happen every 4 lapses. (12, 16, etc)

Once a leech is found, there are a number of ways you can handle it.

Waiting

Some leeches are caused by interference. For example, an English learner may have recently learnt the words "disappoint" and "disappear". As they look similar, the learner may find themselves confusing the two when trying to answer. In these situations, it’s often productive to concentrate on just one idea. When that idea is firmly ingrained in your mind, you can then return to learning the other idea. So in these situations, you may want to leave one of the words suspended until you have learnt the other one well, and then unsuspend it in the browser.

Deleting

Another way to manage leeches is to delete them. Consider if the material you’re struggling with is important enough to make it worth your while. By selectively deleting difficult and obscure items, you can dedicate more time to learning other material, and studying becomes a lot more fun.

Editing

Another approach is to change the way the information is presented. Perhaps the cards you have created have too much information on them, or perhaps you’re trying to memorize something without fully understanding it. Sometimes spending some time changing the way the card is phrased can help. It’s also a good time to think about making a mnemonic to help you remember.

导入

Anki能够导入文本文件、由导出功能生成的记忆库包文件、 Mnemosyne 2.0.db文件以及SuperMemo.xml。要导入文件， 可以点击文件菜单下的“导入”选项。

导入文本文件

• 文件须为纯文本文件（我的文件.txt），其它格式诸如 我的文件.xls、 我的文件.rtf、我的文件.doc 都必须先另存为纯文本文件。

• 文件必须是UTF-8格式（详情参考下面）.

• Anki通过查看文件的第一行（无注释）来决定字段的数量。 文件的任何有不同数量的 字段的行都将被忽略。

• 第一行还规定了分隔符：如果Anki在第一行发现了 ; ， 它会将分号作为分隔符；如果发现了逗号，则会将逗号作为分隔符， 以此类推。

foo bar; bar baz; baz quux
apple; banana; grape

hello; "this is
two; this is a one line one

hello; this is<br>a two line answer
two; this is a one line one

 注意 如果你使用多行完形填空，转义多行可能不能正常工作。 在这种情况下，请使用HTML新行。

first field; second field; tags

# this is a comment and is ignored
foo bar; bar baz; baz quux
field1; field2; field3

HTML

Anki能处理从文本文件导入的作为HTML（被用作网页的语言）的文本。 这意味着带有加粗、斜体或其它格式的文本能被 导出为文本文件并再次导入。如果你希望包含HTML 格式，你可以在导入时勾选“允许在字段中使用HTML”、 当你尝试导入包含尖括号或其它HTML语法的内容时， 你可能希望将这项关闭。

• 对于 "<", 用 "&lt;"

• 对于 ">", 用 "&gt;"

导入媒体

<img src="myimage.jpg">

[sound:myaudio.mp3]

 注意 当导入包含了这些引用的文本文件时，你需要确保 勾选了“允许在字段中使用HTML”选项。

<img src="{{field name}}">

Anki不支持这种方式，有两个原因：检索已用媒体 很费时，因为每张卡片都需要渲染；而且这样的功能 对于使用共享记忆库的人来说不够明了。请使用查找 & 替换技术。

添加标签

tags:tag1 tag2

重复与更新

 注意 查找重复是针对你的 整个集合，而不只是当前记忆库。 如果当Anki提示笔记没有被改变而你又 希望它们被导入，请检查笔记是否在你集合的某个地方 已经存在。

Exporting

Exporting allows you to save part of your collection as a text file or packaged Anki deck. To export, click the File menu and choose Export.

Exporting Text

If you choose "Notes in Plain Text", Anki will write the contents of the notes into a text file. Each field is separated by a tab. If you edit the resulting file and don’t modify the first field, you can later import that file back into Anki and Anki will update your notes based on your edits, provided you import back into the same note type.

If you find yourself needing to edit the first field as well, you’ll need to change the format of your note type so that the first field is an ID number rather than actual text. (You can install the "Add note id" plugin to make this easier.)

In order for formatting to be preserved when you import text back in, the text is exported with all the HTML formatting embedded in it.

Exporting Packaged Decks

A packaged deck consists of cards, notes, note types and any sounds or images bundled up into a file ending with .apkg. You can use packaged decks to transfer cards between people, or for backing up parts of your collection. A packaged deck is compressed, so it will be smaller than the sum of the files in your profile folder.

There are two different kinds of packaged decks.

Collection Package

When you export all decks with scheduling included, this is called a collection package. Anki will copy your entire collection into a file called "collection.apkg", and place it on your desktop. A collection package is used to back up your collection or to synchronize to AnkiMobile via iTunes.

When this file is later imported, Anki will delete all the current cards in the collection, and replace the collection with the items in the collection.apkg file. This is useful for copying your collection back and forth between devices.

 Note Existing media in your collection is not deleted when you import a collection.apkg. To delete unused media, use Tools>Check Media.
 Note Anki’s automatic backups are also collection packages. Simply double click on one to restore your collection to that backup.

Deck Package

Deck packages contain a single deck (and any child decks it may have). They have a filename ending with .apkg, but a filename other than collection.apkg. When you import a deck package, Anki will add the contents into your collection, rather than overwriting your collection.

If some notes in the deck package have previously been imported, Anki will keep the version with the most recent modification time. So if you download an updated deck, the edits that have been made in the updated version will be made in your collection as well, but if you re-import an unchanged deck after making edits in your collection, the changes in your collection will be kept.

If you choose not to include scheduling information, Anki will assume that you are sharing the deck with other people, and will remove marked and leech tags so that they will have a clean copy of it.

It’s a good idea to occasionally check your collection file for problems. You can do this via the Tools>Check Database menu item. Checking the database ensures the file is not corrupted, rebuilds some internal structures, and optimizes the file.

When you check the database, your tag list is also rebuilt. When you delete individual decks or cards, Anki does not update the list of used tags, as it’s inefficient to do so. If you want to clear old tags out from the list that are no longer in use, checking your database is the way to do it.

Please note that Anki will automatically optimize your collection once every 2 weeks. This optimization ensures the collection performs well, but it does not check for errors or rebuild the tag list when automatically optimizing.

File Locations

On Windows and OSX, Anki stores all of its files in an Anki folder, located in your Documents folder. On other operating systems, your files are stored in ~/Documents/Anki by default.

Within the Anki folder, the program-level and profile-level preferences are stored in a file called prefs.db.

There is also a separate folder for each profile. The folder contains:

• Your notes, decks, cards and so on in a file called collection.anki2

• Your audio and images in a collection.media folder

• A backups folder

• Some system files

 Warning You should never copy or move your collection while Anki is open. Doing so could cause your collection to become corrupted. Please don’t move or modify the other files in the folder either.
 Note On Unix systems, Anki deliberately uses ~/Documents/Anki rather than a hidden folder. The bulk of the data stored in that folder is important user data rather than easily restored preferences, and it would be a disaster if a user lost it because they overlooked it when backing up files. There are also more and more Linux users who are not familiar with hidden folders. If you’re an advanced user, you can specify a custom folder with a command line argument, described in the next section.

Startup Options

If you have made a destructive change on one computer and have an undamaged copy on another computer, you may wish to start Anki without syncing in order to use the full sync option without first downloading the changes. Similarly, if you are experiencing problems with Anki, you might want to (or might be instructed to) disable add-ons temporarily to see if one might be causing the problem. You can do both of these things by holding down the Shift key while starting Anki.

It is possible to specify a custom folder location during startup. This is an advanced feature that is primarily intended to be used with portable installations, and we recommend you use the default location in most circumstances.

The syntax to specify an alternate folder is as follows:

anki -b /path/to/anki/folder
• If you have multiple profiles, you can pass -p <name> to load a specific profile.

• To change the interface language, use -l <iso 639-1 language code>, such as "-l ja" for Japanese.

If you always want to use a custom folder location, you can modify your shortcut to Anki. On Windows, right-click on the shortcut, choose Properties, select the Shortcut tab, and add "-b \path\to\data\folder" after the path to the program, which should leave you with something like

"C:\Program Files\Anki\anki.exe" -b "C:\AnkiDataFolder"

You can also use this technique with the -l option to easily use Anki in different languages.

 Note On Windows, you should use a backslash (\) not a forward slash (/).

On a Mac there is no easy way to alter the behaviour when clicking on the Anki icon, but it is possibile to start Anki with a custom base folder from a terminal:

open /Applications/Anki.app --args -b ~/myankifolder
 Note If you want to permanently change the interface language, delete Documents/Anki/prefs.db and the initial startup screen will be shown again. After doing so, you’ll need to add any profiles you were using again. As long as you use the same profile name as before, Anki will pick up the files from before.

DropBox and File Syncing

We do not recommend you sync your Anki folder directly with a third-party synchronization service, as it can lead to database corruption when files are synced while in use.

If you wish to keep your collection in sync as well, it is strongly recommended that you create a script that copies your files from your synced folder to a local folder, launches Anki, and then copies the files back when Anki is closed. This will ensure that the files are never synchronized while they are open.

Network Filesystems

We strongly recommend you have Anki store your files on a local hard disk, as network filesystems can lead to database corruption. If a network filesystem is your only option, regular use of Tools>Check Database to detect corruption is recommended.

Running from a Flash Drive

Anki can be installed on a flash drive and run as a portable application:

• Copy the \Program Files\Anki folder to the flash drive, so you have a folder like G:\Anki.

• Create a text file called G:\anki.bat with the following text:

\anki\anki.exe -b \ankidata

If you would like to prevent the black command prompt window from remaining open, you can instead use:

start /b \anki\anki.exe -b \ankidata
• Double-clicking on anki.bat should start Anki with the user data stored in G:\ankidata.

 Note Media syncing with AnkiWeb may not work if your flash drive is formatted as FAT32. Please format the drive as NTFS to ensure media syncs correctly.

Backups

Each time your collection is closed (when closing Anki, switching profiles, or synchronizing your deck), Anki exports your collection into the backups folder. By default Anki will store up to 30 backups; you can adjust this in the preferences.

Automatic backups do not protect against disk or computer failure, and do not extend to your media. To keep your collections safe, please consider making manual backups too.

The easiest way to take a manual backup is to back up your entire Anki folder. Please make sure you close Anki first, as backups may be corrupt if run while Anki is open.

To restore from a backup, simply close Anki, open Documents/Anki/<profile name>/backups, and double-click on the most recent backup in order to import it. This will overwrite your whole collection with the backup copy. If you need to import only part of a backup (for instance, a single deck you messed up), you can do so by creating a new profile and importing the backup into there, then exporting the deck you want to restore and importing it into the other profile.

Anki also logs deleted notes to a text file called deleted.txt in your profile folder. These notes are in a text format that can be read by File>Import, though please note the import feature only supports a single note type at one time, so if you have deleted notes from different note types, you’ll need to split the file into separate files for each note type first.

Inaccessible Harddisk

If Anki can’t write to files in the Anki folder, a message will be displayed on startup saying that Anki can’t write to the harddisk, and Anki will close. If you’re unsure how to fix the permissions, please contact someone near you who is knowledgable about computers and can help you out.

Permissions of Temp Folder

Anki uses the system’s temporary folder to store temporary data. If the permissions of this folder have been changed from the default settings by a rogue app or buggy antivirus app, Anki will not function properly.

If you’re on a Windows 7 machine, the general steps to fix the problem are listed below. As this is somewhat complicated, please ask someone knowledgeable about Windows if you are not sure.

1. Click on the start bar, and type in %temp% (including the percents), then hit enter.

2. Go up one folder, and locate the temp folder. Right click on it, and choose Properties.

3. In the security tab, click on Advanced.

4. Click on the Owner tab. If you’re not listed as the owner, click the button to take ownership.

5. On the permissions tab, ensure that you have full control. On a default W7 install the control will actually be inherited from c:\users\your-username.

Corrupt Collections

Anki uses a file format that is robust against program and computer crashes, but it’s still possible for your collection to become corrupt if the files are modified while Anki is open, stored on a network drive, or corrupted by a bug.

When you run Tools>Check Database, you will receive a message if Anki detects the file has been corrupted. The best way to recover from this is to restore from the most recent automatic backup, but if your backup is too old, then you can attempt to repair the corruption instead.

On Linux, make sure sqlite3 is installed. On a Mac, it should be installed already. On Windows, download http://www.sqlite.org/sqlite-3_6_23.zip.

Next, create a backup of your collection.anki2 file, in case something goes wrong with the steps below.

Linux/OSX

Open a terminal, change to the folder your collection is located in, and type:

sqlite3 collection.anki2 .dump > dump.txt

Open the resulting dump.txt file in a text editor, and look at the final line. If it reads "rollback;", change it to "commit;"

Then run the following in a terminal:

cat dump.txt | sqlite3 temp.file

Make sure you use temp.file - do not put collection.anki2 on the right, or you will blank out the file. When you’re done, proceed to the final step.

Windows

Copy the sqlite3.exe program and your deck to your desktop. Then go to Start>Run and type in cmd.exe.

If you’re on a recent Windows, the command prompt may not start on your desktop. If you don’t see desktop displayed in the command prompt, type something like the following, replacing administrator with your login name.

cd C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop

Then type:

sqlite3 collection.anki2 .dump > dump.txt

Open the resulting dump.txt file in a text editor, and look at the final line. If it reads "rollback;", change it to "commit;"

Then run the following in a terminal:

type dump.txt | sqlite3 temp.file

Make sure you use temp.file - do not put collection.anki2 on the right, or you will blank out the file. When you’re done, proceed to the final step.

Final Step

Check that you didn’t get an error message, and that temp.file is not empty. The procedure optimizes the collection in the process, so it’s normal for the new file to be somewhat smaller than the old one.

When you’ve confirmed the file is not empty, copy it over collection.anki2, making sure you still have a backup of the original version. Then start Anki and go to Tools>Check Database to make sure the collection has been successfully restored.

Graphs and Statistics

Card Info

You can display information about a card by clicking the Info button in the toolbar while browsing. Most of the displayed information should be self-explanatory. A few notes:

Position

Only shown when the card is new, it shows the order the card will appear in relative to other new cards. The position can be changed in the browser.

Interval

The delay from one review to the next. Times are abbreviated; "0s, 1m, 3h, 4d, 5mo, 6y" refers to seconds, minutes, hours, days, months and years respectively.

Ease

The approximate amount the interval will grow when you answer a review card with the "Good" button.

Statistics

The statistics window is accessed by clicking on the graphs icon in the top right of the main window, or by pressing Shift+S. The statistics window will show statistics from the currently selected deck and any subdecks. If you click on "collection" on the bottom left, statistics will be shown for your entire collection instead.

By default Anki will show you statistics for the previous month. You can change this to a year scope or deck life scope at the bottom. (The "today" section at the top is of course unaffected by this selection.)

Clicking on "Save Image" will save an image of the statistics to a file on your desktop to make it easy to share your statistics with others.

 Note When you delete notes, their review history is maintained in Anki. It will not be included when looking at statistics for a specific deck (as Anki has no way of knowing which deck the deleted cards belonged to), but will be included when you look at statistics for the whole collection.

Types of Cards

The stats window uses some terms that you may not be familiar with:

Mature

A mature card is one that has an interval of 21 days or greater.

Young

A young card is one that has an interval of less than 21 days, but is not in learning.

Learn

A learning card is one that is still in learning mode (using whatever steps may be defined in the deck’s options).

Relearn

A relearning card is a card that you have failed in review mode, thus returning it to learning mode to be relearned.

Unseen

An unseen card is one that has been added to your collection but has not yet entered learning mode. Unseen cards are sometimes referred to as "new" cards, especially when they are in the "new" queue to be shown for the first time.

Today

At the top of the statistics window is a brief list of textual statistics about the reviews that you have completed today. A “review” in this context is one answering of a card, so a card might count as multiple reviews if it needed to be seen multiple times, and a learning card could count as a “review.” A couple of the stats whose meaning may not be immediately obvious:

Again count

This is the number of reviews that you have failed (i.e., pressed Again on). The correct percentage listed afterwards is the number of cards you did not fail divided by the total number of cards you studied.

Learn, Review, Relearn, Filtered

The number of reviews that were learning cards, review cards, relearning cards, or studied in a filtered deck when not due.

The stats for the current day are not a good overall indicator of your learning progress; everyone has bad days and good days, and seeing that you got a lower percentage correct on a particular day should not be cause for concern. The remainder of the stats, which take longer periods of time into account, will give more useful information if you wish to try to change your study habits or scheduling settings based on your performance.

The “today” statistics are unaffected by the time period selected at the bottom of the window.

The Graphs

Forecast

This graph shows an estimated number of reviews that will be due on a given day in the future if you learn no new cards and fail no cards. The bars and the left axis show the number of cards due on each day if you study all cards each day, while the line and the right axis show the number of cards due on that day if you don’t study at all until then. Note that the forecast graph does not count reviews that are currently overdue, so if you have a large backlog, the overdue cards will not be displayed.

Review Count

This graph shows how many cards you have studied in the past. The bars may correspond to days, weeks, or months, depending on the time period you’ve selected at the bottom of the screen. The differently colored blocks show how many of the cards you answered on each day were mature, young, relearning, or learning cards. There is also a separate group for cards answered in a filtered/cram deck while they were not due. The line and the right axis shows the cumulative total for each type of review as time progresses across the graph (so at 0 days, it would display the number for the entire time period displayed on the graph).

Review Time

This graph works exactly like Review Count, except that it deals with the amount of time you spent on each card rather than the number of cards answered.

Intervals

This graph displays the number of cards that have a given interval (the delay between two reviews). The line and the right axis tell you what percentage of your cards have an interval of less than or equal to the time below that point. The time scope has a different effect on this graph than other graphs: rather than changing which cards or period of studying is included, it limits how far out the intervals are displayed to (so 14-month intervals are not displayed at all on a 1-year graph).

Hourly Breakdown

This graph shows what percentage of total reviews you have passed (i.e., not pressed Again on) during given hours. The larger, darker bars and left axis show the success rate; the thinner, lighter bars and right axis show the number of reviews you’ve made at that hour (so you know how significant the results are).

This graph shows how many times you’ve chosen the Again, Hard, Good, or Easy button while studying learning/new, young, and mature cards. Anki also displays the percentage of correct reviews for each type of card.

Cards Types

This pie chart shows what percentage of your deck or collection consists of mature, unseen, young/learn, and suspended cards. If you wish to calculate a more precise percentage, the key shows the exact number of cards in each section, and the total number of cards is displayed to the side.

Manual Analysis

If you’re interested in getting information from your statistics other than what Anki provides, you have several options.

One is to write an add-on that adds another graph or more details to the statistics window. There are several add-ons of this sort on AnkiWeb already, which you can look at to get an idea of how it works.

A more powerful and more complex option is to extract the review log information directly from Anki’s database and analyze it in an external program. Anki uses a database format called SQLite. There are many tools available for working with SQLite databases; one of the easiest to start with is called SQLite Browser, which will allow you to look around the database as well as export a CSV version of tables for import into another program.

The most important table for statistics is the 'revlog' table, which stores an entry for each review that you conduct. The columns are as follows:

id

The time at which the review was conducted, as the number of milliseconds that had passed since midnight UTC on January 1, 1970. (This is sometimes known as Unix epoch time, especially when in straight seconds instead of milliseconds.)

cid

The ID of the card that was reviewed. You can look up this value in the id field of the 'cards' table to get more information about the card, although note that the card could have changed between when the revlog entry was recorded and when you are looking it up. It is also the millisecond timestamp of the card’s creation time.

usn

This column is used to keep track of the sync state of reviews and provides no useful information for analysis.

ease

Which button you pressed at the end of the review (1 for Again, 4 for Easy).

ivl

The new interval that the card was pushed to after the review. Positive values are in days; negative values are in seconds (for learning cards).

lastIvl

The interval the card had before the review. Cards introduced for the first time have a last interval equal to the Again delay.

factor

The new ease factor of the card in permille (parts per thousand). If the ease factor is 2500, the card’s interval will be multiplied by 2.5 the next time you press Good.

time

The amount of time (in milliseconds) you spent on the question and answer sides of the card before selecting an ease button.

type

This is 0 for learning cards, 1 for review cards, 2 for relearn cards, and 3 for "cram" cards (cards being studied in a filtered deck when they are not due).

Media

Anki stores the sounds and images used in your notes in a folder next to the collection. For more on the folder location, please see the file locations section. When you add media within Anki, either by using the paperclip icon in the editor or by pasting it into a field, Anki will copy it from its original location into the media folder. This makes it easy to back up your collection’s media or move it to another computer.

You can use the Tools>Check Media menu option to scan your notes and media folder. It will generate a report of files in the media folder that are not used by any notes, and media referenced in notes but missing from your media folder. It does not scan question or answer templates, which is why you can’t place media references to fields in the template. If you need a static image or sound on every card, name it with a leading _ (e.g., '_dog.jpg') to tell Anki to ignore it when checking for media. If you delete media using the unused media check, Anki will move it into your operating system’s trash folder, so you can recover if you accidentally delete media that shouldn’t have been deleted.

Anki uses a program called mplayer in order to support sounds and videos. A wide variety of file formats are supported, but not all of these formats will work on AnkiWeb and the mobile clients. MP3 audio and MP4 video seems to be the most universally supported.

LaTeX support

LaTeX is a powerful typesetting system, which is ideal for entering mathematical formulas, chemical formulas, musical notation and so on. Anki provides some support for LaTeX, allowing you to enter LaTeX code in your notes. When you review a card, Anki will call LaTeX and display the generated image instead.

Installing and Assumed Knowledge

Anki’s LaTeX support is not turn-key: it is assumed that you know how to use LaTeX already, and that you have it installed. If you have no experience with LaTeX, please consult one of the many guides available on the internet. If you are having trouble with markup, please ask on a LaTeX forum.

To install LaTeX, on Windows use MiKTeX; on OSX use MacTex, and on Linux use your distro’s package manager. Dvipng must also be installed.

 Note On Windows, go to Settings in MikTek’s maintenance window, and make sure "Install missing packages on the fly" is set to "No", not to "Ask me first". If you continue to have difficulties, one user reported that running Anki as an administrator until all the packages were fetched helped.
 Note On OSX, LaTeX has only been tested with MacTex and BasicTex. If you use BasicTex, you need to install dvipng separately, with the following command:
sudo tlmgr update --self; sudo tlmgr install dvipng

The command may not be on the path, so you may need to provide the full path, eg /usr/local/texlive/2014basic/bin/x86_64-darwin/tlmgr.

 Note If you are not using the above LaTeX packages, you will need to use the "edit LaTeX" add-on to specify the full path to latex and dvipng.

LaTeX on Web/Mobile

When you review a card with LaTeX on it, Anki will generate an image for that LaTeX and place the image in your collection’s media folder for future use. The web & mobile clients will display these images if they already exist, but can not generate the images on their own.

To avoid having to review all your cards at least once before you can study on the other clients, Anki can generate the images in bulk for you. To generate all the images, please go to Tools>Check Media. After that, syncing should upload the generated media to AnkiWeb and the other clients.

Example

The most general way to input LaTeX content is to surround it with  tags. There’s a shortcut button for this documented in the editor section.

For example, entering the following on the front of an Anki flashcard:

Does $\begin{math}\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}\end{math}$ converge?

will produce this when the flashcard is viewed:

The formula in the example above is called a text formula, because it is displayed right within the non-mathematical text. In contrast, the following example shows a displayed formula:

Does the sum below converge?

$\begin{displaymath}\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}\end{displaymath}$

Text formulas and display formulas are the most common type of LaTeX expressions, so Anki provides abbreviated versions of them. Expressions of the form:

$\begin{math}...\end{math}$

can be shortened to

[$]...[/$]

and expressions of the form

$\begin{displaymath}...\end{displaymath}$

can be shortened to

[$$]...[/$$]

For example, the two LaTeX snippets shown before are equivalent to

Does [$]\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}[/$] converge?

and

Does the sum below converge?

[$$]\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}[/$$]

respectively.

LaTeX packages

Anki allows you to customize the LaTeX preamble so you can import custom packages for chemistry, music and so on. For example, imagine you find an example file for chemtex on the internet:

\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{report}
\usepackage{chemtex}
\begin{document}

\initial
\begin{figure}[h]\centering
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\ethene{H}{H$_3$C}{CH$_3$}{Br}}
\hfil
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\cbranch{H}{S}{H}{S}{C}{S}{}{S}{H}
\xi=-200 \cright{}{Q}{C}{D}{O}{S}{OH}}
\hfil
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\hetisix{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{O}{Q}{O}
\xi=-171 \fuseup{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{D}{Q}{D}{Q}{D}}
\caption{Chemie mit {\tt CHEMTEX}\label{a1}}
\end{figure}

\end{document}

Firstly, follow the documentation of the package and MiKTeX/MacTex in order to install the package. To check the package is working, you’ll want to put code like the above into a .latex file and test you can compile it from the command line. Once you’ve confirmed that the package is available and working, we can integrate it with Anki.

To use the package with Anki, click "Add" in the main window, then click the note type selection button. Click the "Manage" button, then select the note type you plan to use and click "Options". The LaTeX header and footer are shown. The header will look something like:

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\special{papersize=3in,5in}
\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}
\pagestyle{empty}
\setlength{\parindent}{0in}
\begin{document}

To use chemtex, you’d add the usepackage line in the earlier example, so it looks like:

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\special{papersize=3in,5in}
\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}
\usepackage{chemtex}
\pagestyle{empty}
\setlength{\parindent}{0in}
\begin{document}

After that, you should be able to include lines like the following in your Anki cards:

$\ethene{H}{H_3C}{CH_3}{Br}$

LaTeX Conflicts

It’s not uncommon for {{ and }} to pop up in LaTeX code when writing mathematical equations. To ensure that your LaTeX equations don’t conflict with Anki’s field replacements, it’s possible to change the separator to something else.

For example, if you have a template:

{{latex field}}

Changing it to the following will make it unlikely that the LaTeX will conflict:

{{=<% %>=}}
<%latex field%>

While this most commonly occurs with LaTeX, the solution presented here will work in any situation where you need to include {{ }} on cards, regardless of whether LaTeX is used or not.

When using cloze deletions, you cannot change the double braces used to mark cloze deletions; instead, you can put a space between any double closing braces that do not indicate the end of the cloze, so

{{c1::[$]\frac{foo}{\frac{bar}{baz}}[/$] blah blah blah.}}

will not work, but

{{c1::[$]\frac{foo}{\frac{bar}{baz} }[/$] blah blah blah.}}

will (and LaTeX ignores spaces in math mode, so your equation will render the same).

Unsafe commands

Anki prohibits certain commands like \input or \def from being used on cards or in templates, because allowing them could allow malicious shared decks to damage your system. (To be on the safe side, these commands are prohibited even in comments, so if you’re getting this error but don’t think you’ve used one, please double-check any comments you have in your headers, templates, and cards.) If you need to use these commands, please add them to a system package and import that package as described in the previous section.

Miscellanea

On Windows/Linux you can hold down the alt key and press a highlighted letter to activate a particular menu.

Debug Console

Sometimes you may be asked to use the debug console to change a setting or check something. Unless asked to enter text in the "debug console", you will probably not need this. Advanced users may like to read more about it in the add-ons page, linked below.

When asked to enter text into the "debug console", please start Anki, and in the main window, press Ctrl+: (that is the control key and colon key at the same time), or on a Mac, Command+: (command key and colon key at the same time). When you do so, a new window should pop up.

In the window that has popped up, please paste the text you were asked to paste in the top section. When you’ve done so, please press Ctrl+Return (Command+Return on a Mac), and some text should appear in the bottom section. If you’ve been asked to paste the resulting output, please copy it from the bottom area, and paste it back to the support person.

If you press Ctrl+Shift+Return instead of just Ctrl+Return, Anki will try to print the result rather than doing what you asked it to. If you are getting unexpected errors, please make sure you’re not holding down the Shift key.

Anki’s capabilities can be extended with add-ons. Add-ons can provide features like extra support for specific languages, extra control over scheduling, and so on.

Some add-ons have options or customizations that are only accessible by editing them. To edit an add-on, go to Tools>Add-ons>[add-on name]>Edit. Please be careful when editing - special characters and whitespace is important, so if you see something like:

    line1
line2
line3

…and you accidentally change it to the following, Anki will throw an error when it is restarted:

    line1
line2
line3

Many add-on authors include their email address in the add-on, so if you need to get in touch with the author, editing the add-on and looking at the top of the file may help.

If you have downloaded an add-on that is not working properly, or if you accidentally made a mistake when editing an add-on, you can use the "Delete" option in the menu to remove it.

Contributing

Sharing Decks Publicly

To share decks with the general public, synchronize them with AnkiWeb, then log into AnkiWeb and click on "Share" from the menu next to the deck you wish to share.

If you shared a deck previously (including with previous versions of Anki), you can update it by clicking "Share" as above. Please ensure the name of the deck in your account exactly matches the name shown in the shared deck listing, or you’ll end up creating a new shared deck rather than updating the old one. Updating a shared deck will not reset the download counts or ratings. You can delete a shared deck that you have uploaded using the Delete button on the shared deck’s page.

 Note When updating a deck, AnkiWeb expects the deck to be at the same location as before. If you shared a deck when it was called "Korean Verbs" for example, and then renamed it to "Korean::Korean Verbs", resharing will not be able to update the existing copy.

Sharing Decks Privately

If you’d like to share decks with a limited group of people (such as a study group or class) rather than the general public, you can do so by sharing them outside of AnkiWeb.

To share a deck privately, go to the File menu and choose Export. Select a single deck (not "All Decks"), and turn off "include scheduling information". This will produce an .apkg file which you can share with others.

You can share the .apkg file by emailing it to people, placing it on a website or shared folder, or using a free file sharing service like Dropbox or Google Drive and sending people a link.

Both the computer version and mobile clients make it easy to import from an apkg file simply by clicking or tapping on it. AnkiWeb does not have the ability to import apkg files however, so the recipients of your deck will need to have the computer version or Anki on their mobile device.

When a user imports an .apkg file, cards that already exist in their collection will be ignored and any new cards will be added. As long as they use the same note type, modified cards will also be updated. To prevent data loss, cards that have been deleted in the new apkg file will not be deleted in the user’s collection, so if you need to delete cards from users' decks for whatever reason, you will need to contact them about it.

App Translations

Translations can be done directly from the translation website.

Launchpad will guess which languages you can translate based on the country you’re connecting from. If the language you want to translate to doesn’t appear, sign up for a launchpad account, and in your profile, click the ! next to preferred languages to the language you want to translate.

There are some special markers in text that you need to be aware of, and careful when translating:

• A string like Cards: %d or Error: %s means that the %d/%s part will be replaced with some other value. The characters must remain the same in the translation, so a translation may look like カード: %d.

• The same applies to text like %(a)d of %(b)d - it would be translated like %(a)d von %(b)d. If you need to reverse A and B in your language, that’s fine as long as the text remains the same.

• Menu items have an & to indicate which character is the shortcut key, such as &File. In languages that use roman text, you can place the & over a different character such as &Datei; in other languages there may be a different convention. Japanese for example includes the roman character afterwards instead, like ファイル (&F)

• Some strings have plural support, so that "0 cards", "1 card", "5 cards" can be represented properly in your language. In these instances you’ll need to enter the 2 or 3 different forms.

Sometimes it will not be clear what a string refers to, and you may want to see the context. Below every string to be translated, you’ll see a line like this:

Located in ../dtop/aqt/deckbrowser.py:299

If you strip off the first "../dtop" section, you’re left with something like "aqt/deckbrowser.py:299". You can then visit https://github.com/dae/anki/, locate the same filename, and click on it. The file will be displayed with line numbers on the left, and by matching up the line numbers (they may differ by a few lines sometimes), you may be able to get a better understanding of what the string refers to.

If you see forms in the string like the above example, the strings will generally be obvious. If you do need to understand the context however, things are a little more complicated, as those files are automatically generated from an interface description instead. Please go to https://github.com/dae/anki/tree/master/designer and locate the same filename and click on it. We can’t rely on line numbers in this case, so please use the browser’s find option to find the string in the file. The lines immediately surrounding the found text may give a clue as to its meaning.

If you find a string that you’re unsure how to translate, or would like to start a discussion with fellow native speakers on the best way to translate something, please feel free to start a thread in the Anki forums.

If you’d like to try out your translations without waiting for a new release, you can export a .mo file from the translation website. If you then move that .mo file into Anki’s installation folder, overwriting an existing .mo file with the same language code (in the locale folder), Anki will display the new translations when it is next started.

Translating the Manual

If you’re a fairly technical user, you may want to translate the source file of the manual, and compile it yourself with asciidoc. You can also use that github repo to keep track of changes to the manual in the future.

If that sounds complicated, an easier way is to visit this page and use File>Save As to save the manual to disk. You can then import it into Microsoft Word or similar software, and translate it that way.

When you’re happy with the translation, you can either put it up on your website and I can link to it, or I can host the translated file on Anki’s website (but if you’re planning to make frequent updates, the former is a better choice). If you’d like, you can post it before you’re done and we can link to it in the list of in-progress translations below.

Another option is to put your translation on a wiki, so that other users can contribute to it. There are many sites such as Wikia that will allow you to easily create your own wiki for free. (The English version once used a wiki; we found that we got too many unhelpful contributions and had to spend too much time correcting them, but your mileage may vary.)

The following translations are currently in progress:

• Spanish

• Chinese

If you would like to help with one of these translations, please contact us on TenderApp and we will put you in touch with the user(s) currently working on it.

Contributing Code

Anki’s source code is available at http://github.com/dae

If you have bugfixes or believe your changes would benefit many people, please have a look at the LICENSE file, and if you agree to the license, drop Damien an email or a Github pull request.

常见问题

我还未学习很久，而现在离下次复习的间隔太大了！

When people return to their deck after weeks or months of no study, they’re often surprised by the length intervals have grown to. This is because Anki considers the actual time the card was unseen, not just the time it was scheduled for. Thus if the card was scheduled for 5 days but you didn’t study for a month, the next interval will be closer to 60 days than 10 days.

This is a good thing. If you have successfully remembered a card after a one month wait, chances are you’ll remember it again after a longer wait, too. The same principles which make SRS effective in normal use apply when you’re studying after a delay, too. It also makes little sense to schedule a card for 10 days in the future if you were able to easily answer it after a whole month’s wait - you’d be going backwards.

Resetting the deck is an even worse solution. When returning to a deck after a long absence, you may have forgotten many of your cards, but chances are you haven’t forgotten them all. Resetting the entire deck means you have to waste time studying material you already know.

Now you may find overdue cards that you were able to recall, but not comfortably, since they were not reviewed when they should have been. To counter this, Anki treats the delay differently depending on your answer. If you find a card easy, the last interval plus the full delay are added together, and then used to calculate the next interval. When you answer good, only half the delay is used. And when you answer hard, only a quarter of the delay is used. So if a card was due in 5 days, and it’s answered 20 days late, the next times you’d end up with are approximately:

• Hard: (5 + 20/4) * 1.2 = 12 days

• Good: (5 + 20/2) * 2.5 = 37.5 days

• Easy: (5 + 20) * 3.25 = 81.25 days

(the factors will actually vary depending on your performance in the deck)

If you find a card hard, the next interval is quite conservative and is less than the last wait (25 days). If you find it good, the next interval is only about 50% higher. And easy increases the interval aggressively as usual.

So it is recommended that you study as normal when you return to Anki after a period of absence. But if you absolutely must reset the deck, you can select the cards to reset in the browser, and use Edit>Reschedule.

Can I do multiple-choice questions?

Multiple choice questions are a poor review tool for a number of reasons. The reason they are commonly used in an academic setting is because they are easy to mark, and they allow the person studying to demonstrate their ability to recognize the correct answer even if they can’t produce it themselves.

Furthermore, good multiple choice questions have well chosen "distractors" - answers that are similar to the correct answer. A computer can look for similary spelt words, but it is not capable of chosing good distractors for more complicated topics.

If you are studying for a test and you have a sample test with a multiple choice question like the following:

Q: What animal has a really long neck?

A: 1. A monkey. 2. A giraffe. 3. A donkey. 4. A snail.

Then that question should be rewritten in Anki as follows:

Q: What animal has a really long neck?

A: A giraffe.

Q: What animal has a really long neck? (dog/cat/giraffe/penguin)

A: A giraffe.

Anki supports links between cards of a note, but not between unrelated cards. Imagine are you studying Japanese and aiming to be able to both recognize and reproduce the Japanese. You may enter the word "ookii", which means "big", and tell Anki to generate two cards - ookii→big and big→ookii.

In the above situation Anki can space reviews of those two sibling cards out so that they don’t appear one after the other (see sibling spacing in the link at the top of this document).

Some people want to extend this link between arbitrary cards. They want to be able to tell Anki "after showing me this card, show me that card", or "don’t show me that card until I know this card well enough". This might sound like a nice idea in theory, but in practice it is not practical.

For one, unlike the sibling card case above, you would have to define all the relations yourself. Entering new notes into Anki would become a complicated process, as you’d have to search through the rest of the deck and assign relationships between the old and new material.

Secondly, remember that Anki is using an algorithm to determine when the optimum time to show you material again is. Adding constraints to card display that cause cards to display earlier or later than they were supposed to will make the spaced repetition system less effective, leading to more work than necessary, or forgotten cards.

The most effective way to use Anki is to make each note you see independent from other notes. Instead of trying to join similar words together, you’ll be better off if you can determine the differences between them. Synonyms are rarely completely interchangeable - they tend to have nuances attached, and it’s not unusual for a sentence to become strange if one synonym is replaced with another.

Continuing with the Japanese example earlier, imagine you want to learn the word "dekai", which also roughly translates to "big", but is a more colloquial expression. If you still want to review in both directions, you might make the English prompt of this word "big (more casual)". The further you progress in your language studies though, the more of a burden it becomes to define the differences between similar words, which is why cards asking you to produce a particular word are best left to the early stage of your studies. With a strong base vocabulary, moving towards recognition-based study makes more sense, as we all have a much larger passive vocabulary than our active vocabulary.

As for ensuring that difficult material is introduced after easier material, a number of existing tools are available. New cards are by default introduced in the order they are added to the deck, so as long as the learning materials or sources of information you are using are adequately graded for your level, material should appear in order of easiness.

Can I give my notes an arbitrary number of fields?

Notes are designed to represent closely related information, and to make it easy to reorganize where that information appears on a card. In the context of language learning, notes are useful for representing things like a phrase-translation pair, a phrase-translation-reading triplet, and so on. All of these relationships are 1:1 - a given phrase has only one reading, and one translation. (1)

Because of their ability to tie related pieces of information together, some people try to use notes to tie less closely related information in their deck together. For example, if they come across two sentences with the word "completely":

• He was completely confused.

• That was completely uncalled for.

Then they put those two sentences in the same note, under the rationale that since they share a word, they are related. But what if the user comes across another example sentence?

• The book confused her.

That sentence shares the word "confused" with a previous sentence. So should it be in the note for "confused"? Or the note for "completely"? Or both?

Unlike the phrase-translation pairs mentioned above, if you say sentences are related if they share a word, then sentences have a many:many relationship. That is, sentence A may be related to sentence B and C, sentence B may be related to A and D, and so on. Because the relationships are complex and overlapping, notes are not a good way to represent them.

There seem to be two main reasons people try to represent such relationships in notes:

• "Because it’s neater to keep all the information in one place". This may seem to be the case, but in reality you really don’t save much. If you want to see all example sentences that contain the word "completely" and each sentence is in a different note, all you have to do is search for "completely".

• "Because I want Anki to separate reviews of cards that share the same word". This is related to the previous FAQ question. Defining the links between cards is time consuming, and if it were done automatically and every card that shared a word were separated from other cards that shared a word, it would be both computationally prohibitive, and would likely lead to a situation where nothing could be shown because it was all related to something else. Yes, it’s not ideal for two sentences containing the same word to be shown right after each other, but if you add new cards in a random order such a situation is unlikely, and the downsides of trying to prevent such a situation aren’t worth it. And even if such a solution were introduced, it wouldn’t stop you from encountering the words in the real world.

(1) It is possible for different people to translate the same phrase in different ways, and different dialects may read the same word differently, but that is not relevant to the discussion.

为什么 Android 版是免费的，而 iOS 版不是？

AnkiDroid 则是由一群分散在世界各地的志愿者编写完成。鉴于他们的工作建立在我免费提供的桌面版的基础上（并且依赖 AnkiWeb 以保持牌组同步），他们最终决定免费提供 AnkiDroid 给大家。

Anki 使用的间隔重复算法是怎样的？

Anki 最初采用的是 SuperMemo 的 SM5 算法。然而 Anki 默认需要在回答卡片之前确定下次复习的间隔，这与 SM5 算法有一些根本性的冲突。目前采用的 SM2 算法与后续的新版算法间的关键区别是：

• SM2 算法基于你在一张卡片上的表现决定下次复习这张卡片的时间

• SM3+ 算法基于你在一张卡片上的表现决定下次复习这张及类似卡片的时间

Anki 的实际算法基于 SM2，但在以下方面略有不同：

• SM2 defines an initial interval of 1 day then 6 days. With Anki, you have full control over the length of the initial learning steps. Anki understands that it can be necessary to see a new card a number of times before you’re able to memorize it, and those initial "failures" don’t mean you need to be punished by being shown the failed card many times over the course of a few days. Performance during the learning stage does not reflect performance in the retaining stage.

• Anki uses 4 choices for answering review cards, not 6. There is only one fail choice, not 3. The reason for this is that failure comprises a small amount of total reviews, and thus adjusting a card’s ease can be sufficiently done by simply varying the positive answers.

• Answering cards later than scheduled will be factored into the next interval calculation, so you receive a boost to cards that you were late in answering but still remembered.

• Like SM2, Anki’s failure button resets the card interval by default. But the user can choose to make the card take some steps back rather than being reset completely. Also, you can elect to review failed mature cards on a different day, instead of the same day.

• Remembered easily not only increments the ease factor, but adds an extra bonus to the current interval calculation. Thus, answering remembered easily is a little more aggressive than the standard SM2 algorithm.

• Successive failures while cards are in learning do not result in further decreases to the card’s ease. A common complaint with the standard SM algorithms is that repeated failings of a card cause the card to get stuck in "low interval hell". In Anki, the initial acquisition process does not influence a card’s ease.

Again

The card is placed into relearning mode, the ease is decreased by 20 percentage points (that is, 20 is subtracted from the ease value, which is in units of percentage points), and the current interval is multiplied by the value of new interval (this interval will be used when the card exits relearning mode).

Hard

The card’s ease is decreased by 15 percentage points and the current interval is multiplied by 1.2.

Good

The current interval is multiplied by the current ease. The ease is unchanged.

Easy

The current interval is multiplied by the current ease times the easy bonus and the ease is increased by 15 percentage points.

For Hard, Good, and Easy, the next interval is additionally multiplied by the interval modifier. If the card is being reviewed late, the number of days that the card is overdue will be added to the current interval before doing these calculations.

There are a few limitations on the scheduling values that cards can take. Eases will never be decreased below 130%; SuperMemo’s research has shown that eases below 130% tend to result in cards becoming due more often than is useful and annoying users. Intervals will never be increased beyond the value of maximum interval. Finally, all new intervals (except Again) will always be at least one day longer than the previous interval.

 Note After you select an ease button, Anki also applies a small amount of random “fuzz” to prevent cards that were introduced at the same time and given the same ratings from sticking together and always coming up for review on the same day. This fuzz does not appear on the interval buttons, so if you’re noticing a slight discrepancy between what you select and the intervals your cards actually get, this is probably the cause.