Anki 2.0 用户手册

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翻译

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介绍

Anki是一个使记忆变得容易的学习软件。因为它是一个自定义多功能的记忆方式,可以大大减少你的学习时间,也可以大大提高 你的学习容量.

ANKI会帮助那些在日常生活中需要记忆东西的人们。因为它是“内容-未知”模式,支持图像、音频、视频和科学标记(通过 LaTeX),可能性是无限的。例如:

  • 学习一门语言

  • 备考医学和法律考试

  • 记忆人的名字和面孔

  • 温习地理学

  • 习长诗

  • 甚至练习吉他和弦

Anki背后有两个简单的概念:: 动召回测试 间隔重复. 它们不被大多数学习者知晓,尽管这方面科学文献已经存在很多年了。了解它们的工作原理会使你更有效的学习.

主动召回测试

主动召回测试 意味着问了一个问题并试图记住答案。. 与被动学习比 较, 如果我们记住了答案,我们去阅读、看或听的话不用花费时间去思考。研究表明,主动召回测试比被动学习更有效地建立强有力的记忆。有两个原因:

  • 召回的模式增强 记忆, 通过持续地增加再次记忆的机会来增强记忆.

  • 当我们无法回答一个问题,它告诉我们需要返回到资料再次复习或者重新学习它。

你可能在求学的过程中有过主动召回测试的经历,只是你没有意识到而已。老师会在你阅读文章之后提出一系列的问 题,或者进行每周测验,他们这样做不仅仅是看看你是否理解学习内容,也是在增加你学习的机会,让你在以后能够记 住这些学习内容.

把召回测试应用到你的学习之中的一个好法子是 使用卡片. 传统的纸质卡片,你把问题写在卡片的一侧,答案在另外 一侧,但是没有不停回流这些卡片直到你可以掌握所有的问题。通过召回测试,你便可以比传统的学习更有效率.

不用就会忘记

我们的大脑是高效的机器,他们迅速抛弃似乎不太有用的信息。可能你不记得两个星期前周一晚餐吃的是什么,因为这些信息通 常并不是有用的。如果你那天去了一个很棒的餐馆,在过去的两个星期一直告诉身边的人那儿是多么的好,这种情况下,你可能 还记得那儿生动的细节。

大脑的“不用就会忘记”政策适用于我们学习的一切。如果你花一个下午记住一些科学术语,然后在两周内不考虑这些学习内 容,你可能会忘记了大部分。事实上,研究表明我们会在48小时内忘记约75%的学习内容。当你需要学习大量的信息的时候 这会变得很沮丧,。

然而,解决方案很简单: 复习. 通过回顾学习过而又觉得生疏的内容,我们可以大大减少遗忘。

唯一的问题是传统的复习方法不是很实用。如果您正在使用纸质卡片,并且只有30项复习的内容, 那么你很容易浏览完所有的问题,但随着数量增长到300或3000,立即就变得难以处理.

间隔重复

1885年,一位德国的心理学家发表了 间隔效应 . 他观察到, 和在一个时间段集中进行多次学习相比,如果在时间的推移过程中我们有过分散的复习,那么会更有效地记住事情。自1930年代以来已经有许多利用间隔效应来 提高学习效果的建议,被称为记忆.

一个例子是在1972年,一个叫做塞巴斯蒂安•莱特纳的德国科学家推广纸质卡片记忆法。通过将纸质卡片分装到一系列的盒 子里,把学习通过的和需要再次复习的卡片分开装 ,一眼就可以大致看出这些卡片的掌握情况,什么卡片需要再次进行复习。这相比单一盒子卡片有了很大的进步,目前它已经广泛应用于计算机抽认卡软件。即便如 此,这还是一个相当粗糙的方法,因为它不能给你一个你应该再次复习的确切日期,也不能很好地应对不同难度的学习材料。

过去的30年里最大的发展来自于SuperMemo的作者,一个商业抽认卡程序,实现了记忆。SuperMemo首创的 概念系统,跟踪理想的时间进行材料复习,并且优化了基于用户自身的相关性能。.

SuperMemo记忆系统,每次你回答一个问题,你告诉程序你能够记住它或者你完全忘记了、做了一个小错误、记忆出现 障碍、轻松记忆,等等。程序使用反馈来决定最优时间再次向您出示问题。随着每次成功的回忆,你的记忆也变得越来越坚固, 那么这个问题的复习时间也会被越来越拉长,所以您可能在第一次看到一个问题,之后便在3天之后、15天之后、45天之 后,等等。

这是一个学习的革命,因为它意味着可以用最少的努力去学习东西或者记住东西。SuperMemo的口号总结 说:。 记忆,你可以忘记,再忘记.

为什么选择ANKI?

虽然不可否认SuperMemo在记忆领域有着巨大的影响,但是它也存在它的问题。程序因为BUG和难以调试而经常受到 指责,它只在Windows系统运行。这种专有软件,意味着终端用户无法拓展或访问原始数据。尽管很老的版本是免费的, 但对现代使用而言它们的功能非常有限。

Anki解决了这些问题。Anki的免费客户端可用在很多平台上,所以预计一些因为受到限制而苦苦挣扎的学生和教师可以 不用再担心了。它是开源的,有蓬勃发展的插件库提供给最终用户。它的多平台,可运行在Windows、Mac OSX,Linux / FreeBSD,一些移动设备。而且,和SuperMemo相比,它相当容易使用。

在内部,Anki的记忆系统是基于SuperMemo称为SM2旧版本的算法。其后续版本已经成功地挤出一点学习效率, 但却花费了很大的成本去增加系统复杂性,而且在实际使用过程中更容易调度错误。对于不同调度算法更深入的讨论, 看页面的底部常见问题部分.

基本术语

卡片

一问一答配对成卡片. 卡片的一面是问题,另外一面是答案。在Anki里卡片并不像常规的那样,你要回答的问题 的答案是默认可见的。例如,如果你学习基础化学,你可能会看到这样一个问题:

Q: Chemical symbol for oxygen?

经过考虑之后,决定答案是O,单击显示按钮,显示你的回答:

Q: Chemical symbol for oxygen?
A: O

Anki检查你是正确的,并且也知道了你的记忆情况,会根据你对这个问题的记忆情况选择一个时间让这个问题再 次出现。

Decks

一副牌组 一组卡片。可以替换卡片组成不同的牌组去学习,不需要每一次都学习全部内容。每个牌组可以有不同的设置,如 每天展示多少新卡片,或等多长时间卡片再次出现。

牌组下面有分支,可以形成一个树状结构的牌组体系。Anki用“::”显示不同的层级。一个名为“中国::汉字”的牌组 归属于“汉字”牌组,是“中国”牌组的一个下属分支。如果你搜索“汉字”,就只会显示这个牌组;如果你搜索“中国”,那 么所有的中国牌组包含汉字牌组都会显示出来。

要将某个牌组放入树状结构,你可以将其按照各个层级命名,并以“::”作为分隔。嵌套在另一个牌组下层的牌组(也就是名称中包含至少一个“::”)通常称为子牌组,顶层的牌组有时称为超牌组或父牌组。

Anki 中的牌组起始于一个叫“default”(默认)的牌组,任何脱离其它牌组的卡片都会到这里。如果默认牌组(default)为空,而且你还添加了其它牌组,默认牌组就会被隐藏。你也可以将默认牌组重命名,作为它用。.

Decks are best used to hold broad categories of cards, rather than specific topics such as “food verbs” or “lesson 1”. For more info on this, please see the using decks appropriately section.

For information on how decks affect the order cards are displayed in, please see the display order section.

Notes & Fields

When making flashcards, it’s often desirable to make more than one card that relates to some information. For example, if you’re learning French, and you learn that the word “bonjour” means “hello”, you may wish to create one card that shows you “bonjour” and asks you to remember “hello”, and another card that shows you “hello” and asks you to remember “bonjour”. One card is testing your ability to recognize the foreign word, and the other card is testing your ability to produce it.

When using paper flashcards, your only option in this case is to write out the information twice, once for each card. Some computer flashcard programs make life easier by providing a feature to flip the front and back sides. This is an improvement over the paper situation, but there are two major downsides:

  • Because such programs don’t track your performance of recognition and production separately, cards will tend not to be shown to you at the optimum time, meaning you forget more than you’d like, or you study more than is necessary.

  • Reversing the question and answer only works when you want exactly the same content on each side. This means it’s not possible to display extra info on the back of each card for example.

Anki solves these problems by allowing you to split the content of your cards up into separate pieces of information. You can then tell Anki which pieces of information you want on each card, and Anki will take care of creating the cards for you and updating them if you make any edits in the future.

Imagine we want to study French vocabulary, and we want to include the page number on the back of each cards. We want our cards to look like this:

Q: Bonjour
A: Hello
   Page #12

And:

Q: Hello
A: Bonjour
   Page #12

In this example, we have three pieces of related information: a French word, an English meaning, and a page number. If we put them together, they’d look like this:

French: Bonjour
English: Hello
Page: 12

In Anki, this related information is called a note, and each piece of information is called a field. So we can say that this type of note has three fields: French, English, and Page.

To add and edit fields, click the “Fields…” button while adding or editing notes. For more information on fields, please see the Customizing Fields section.

Card Types

In order for Anki to create cards based on our notes, we need to give it a blueprint that says which fields should be displayed on the front or back of each card. This blueprint is called a card type. Each type of note can have one or more card types; when you add a note, Anki will create one card for each card type.

Each card type has two templates, one for the question and one for the answer. In the above French example, we wanted the recognition card to look like this:

Q: Bonjour
A: Hello
   Page #12

To do this, we can set the question and answer templates to:

Q: {{French}}
A: {{English}}<br>
   Page #{{Page}}

By surrounding a field name in double curly brackets, we tell Anki to replace that section with the actual information in the field. Anything not surrounded by curly brackets remains the same on each card. (For instance, we don’t have to type “Page #” into the Page field when adding material – it’s added automatically to every card.) <br> is a special code that tells Anki to move to the next line; more details are available in the templates section.

The production card templates work in a similar way:

Q: {{English}}
A: {{French}}<br>
   Page #{{Page}}

Once a card type has been created, every time you add a new note, a card will be created based on that card type. Card types make it easy to keep the formatting of your cards consistent and can greatly reduce the amount of effort involved in adding information. They also mean Anki can ensure related cards don’t appear too close to each other, and they allow you to fix a typing mistake or factual error once and have all the related cards updated at once.

To add and edit card types, click the “Cards…” button while adding or editing notes. For more information on card types, please see the Cards and Templates section.

Note Types

Anki allows you to create different types of notes for different material. Each type of note has its own set of fields and card types. It’s a good idea to create a separate note type for each broad topic you’re studying. In the above French example, we might create a note type called “French” for that. If we wanted to learn capital cities, we could create a separate note type for that as well, with fields such as “Country” and “Capital City”.

When Anki checks for duplicates, it only compares other notes of the same type. Thus if you add a capital city called “Orange” using the capital city note type, you won’t see a duplicate message when it comes time to learn how to say “orange” in French.

When you create a new collection, Anki automatically adds some standard note types to it. These note types are provided to make Anki easier for new users, but in the long run it’s recommended you define your own note types for the content you are learning. The standard note types are as follows:

Basic

Has Front and Back fields, and will create one card. Text you enter in Front will appear on the front of the card, and text you enter in Back will appear on the back of the card.

Basic (and reversed card)

Like Basic, but creates two cards for the text you enter: one from front→back and one from back→front.

Basic (optional reversed card)

This is a front→back card, and optionally a back→front card. To do this, it has a third field called “Add Reverse.” If you enter any text into that field, a reverse card will be created. More information about this is available in the Cards and Templates section.

Cloze

A note type which makes it easy to select text and turn it into a cloze deletion (e.g., “Man landed on the moon in […]” → “Man landed on the moon in 1969”). More information is available in the cloze deletion section.

To add your own note types and modify existing ones, you can use Tools → Manage Note Types.

Note
Notes and note types are common to your whole collection rather than limited to an individual deck. This means you can use many different types of notes in a particular deck, or have different cards generated from a particular note in different decks. When you add notes using the Add window, you can select what note type to use and what deck to use, and these choices are completely independent of each other. You can also change the note type of some notes after you’ve already created them.

Collection

Your collection is all the material stored in Anki – your cards, notes, decks, note types, deck options, and so on.

添加材料

下载共享记忆库

Anki入门最简单的方式是下载 他人分享的卡片记忆库:

  1. 点击记忆库列表底部的“获取记忆库”按钮;

  2. 当你找到了一个感兴趣的记忆库,点击下载按钮 来下载记忆库包;

  3. 双击下载的记忆库包将它导入Anki,或者使用 文件→导入。

请注意,暂时无法将共享记忆库直接添加到 你的AnkiWeb账号。你需要使用桌面版程序来导入它们,然后 同步以将它们上传到AnkiWeb。

请参阅 共享记忆库 来查看关于与他人分享你的记忆库 的信息。

自制与预制

创建你自己的记忆库是学习一门复杂学科的最为有效的方式。 诸如语言和科学等学科能简单地理解为 记忆事实,实际上它们需要解释和上下文来学习。 此外,自己输入信息迫使你决定什么是 要点,进而更好地理解。

如果你是一名语言学习者,你可能倾向于下载一个长的词表 和它们的翻译。但是,这样学习一门语言就像是 利用记忆科学公式来学习天体物理学。为了更好地学习, 你需要课本、教师,或置身于真实语境中。

不要学习你不理解的东西。
--SuperMemo

大多数共享记忆库的作者不只是拿Anki来学习, 还有课本、课堂、电视等。他们从学习材料中挑选感兴趣的要点 并把它们放到Anki。因为他们已经理解了材料,所以他们一般不会在卡片 中添加背景信息或解释。因此,当其他人下载他们的记忆库并且尝试 使用时,会感觉学习起来很困难,因为没有背景信息和 解释。

这并不是说共享记忆库就没什么用,对于复杂 学科,它们应该被用来作为外部材料的 补充,而不是 取代 。如果你正在学习课本ABC,并且他人已分享了 源自ABC的记忆库,那么,下载共享记忆库是一个节省时间的好做法。有些题材 很简单,像省会城市名、智力问答等,它们是一组事实, 你可能不需要外部材料。但是,如果你尝试 抛开外部材料来学习复杂学科,那么你最后可能 会失望。

添加卡片和笔记

回想 基础 中说到的,我们往Anki添加笔记而不是卡片, Anki为我们创建卡片。点击主界面的 添加 ,会弹出 添加笔记的窗口。

窗口左上方显示的是当前笔记类型,如果它 不是“基本”,那么,当你下载共享记忆库后,你可能需要添加一些笔记类型。 下文假定笔记类型选择的是“基本”。

窗口右上方显示的是卡片会添加到哪个记忆库。如果你想要 添加卡片到新记忆库,你可以点击记忆库名 然后点击“添加”。

在笔记类型的下方,你会看到一些按钮,以及“正面”和“反面”的 区域,正面和反面被称为 区域 ,并且你可以点击上面的“区域…”按钮来 添加、移除或重命名区域。

在区域下方是“标签”。标签是 附在笔记上的标签,使得管理或查找笔记更简单。你可以 不加标签,或是加一个或多个标签, 标签用空格隔开。例如,如果你的标签是:

vocab check_with_tutor

…那么,你添加的这条笔记将会有两个标签。

当你已经往正面和背面添加了文字后,你可以点击“添加” 按钮或按Ctrl+Enter(对于Mac是Command+Enter),来将笔记添加到你的 集合。若如此做,一个卡片也将会被创建,并且添加到 你选择的记忆库。如果想要编辑已添加的卡片,你可以点击 “历史”按钮来在 浏览器 中寻找最近添加的卡片。

Anki检查第一字段的唯一性。因此,如果你在 两张卡片的正面都添加了“苹果”(举个例子),Anki会给出警告。唯一性检查 仅限当前笔记类型,因此,如果你正在学习多种语言,只要你为每种语言使用不同的笔记类型, 当两张卡片的正面相同时也不会被列为重复。

Anki不自动检查其它区域的重复 以提升效率,但是浏览器有“查找重复”功能,你可以定期执行它。

笔记类型和区域之间还有一些按钮,要了解它们的更多信息, 请参阅 编辑 部分。

最佳训练Best Practices

不同的人喜欢以不同的方式复习,但是你需要注意一些基本概念。 SuperMemo网站上的 这篇文章 是个极好的介绍。特别是:

  • 保持简单: 卡片越短越容易复习。你 可能会在卡片中放大量信息以防万一,但是复习 会马上变得很痛苦。

  • 不要记没有理解的: 如果你正在学习一门语言,试着 避免大串词表。学习语言最好的方式是结合 上下文,即在例句中学习单词。比方说, 假设你在学习电脑课程,如果你尝试记忆 缩略词,你会发现很难取得进步。但是, 如果你花时间去理解缩略词背后的概念, 学习缩略词会变得轻松许多。

添加笔记类型

基本笔记类型对于在每面只有一个单词或短语是够用的, 但是,当你发现你需要在正面或背面包含多于 一条的信息时,更好的方式是 将这些信息切分到更多的区域中。

你可能会问:我只是想要一张卡片,那么为什么我就不能把 音频、图片、提示和解释都放在正面区域中呢? If you’d prefer to do that, that’s fine. But the disadvantage of that approach is that all the information is stuck together. If you wanted to sort your cards by the hint, you wouldn’t be able to do that as it’s mixed in with the other content. You also wouldn’t be able to do things like move the audio from the front to the back, except by laboriously copying and pasting it for every note. By keeping content in separate fields, you make it much easier to adjust the layout of your cards in the future.

To create a new type of note, choose Tools → Manage Note Types. Then click “Add” to add a new type of note. You’ll now see another screen that gives you a choice of note types to base the new type on. “Add” means to base the newly created type on one that comes with Anki. “Clone” means to base the newly created type on one that is already in your collection. For instance, if you’d created a French vocab type already, you might want to clone that when creating a German vocab type.

After choosing OK, you’ll be asked to name the new type. The subject material you’re studying is a good choice here – things like “Japanese”, ”Trivia”, and so on. Once you’ve chosen a name, close the Note Types window, and you’ll return to the adding window.

Customizing Fields

To customize fields, click the “Fields…” button when adding or editing a note, or while the note type is selected in the Manage Note Types window.

You can add, remove, or rename fields by clicking the appropriate buttons. To change the order in which the fields appear in this dialog and the add notes dialog, you can use the reposition button, which asks for the numerical position you want the field to have. So if you want to change a field to be the new first field, enter “1”.

Note
Do not use Tags, Type, Deck, Card, or FrontSide as field names, as they are special fields and will not work properly.

The options at the bottom of the screen allow you to edit various properties of the fields to be used when adding and editing the cards. This is not where you customize what appears on your cards when reviewing; for that, please see templates.

Editing Font allows you to customize the font and size used when editing notes. This is useful if you want to make unimportant information smaller, or increase the size of foreign characters which are hard to read. The changes you make here do not affect how cards appear when reviewing: to do that, please see the templates section. If you have enabled the “type in the answer” function, however, the text you type will use the font size defined here. (For information about how to change the actual font face when typing the answer, please see the checking your answer section.)

Sort by this field… tells Anki to show this field in the Sort Field column of the browser. You can use this to sort cards by that field. Only one field can be the sort field at once.

When Remember last input… is checked, Anki will not clear out this field’s content after a note is added. If you find yourself entering the same content into multiple notes, you may find this useful.

Reverse text direction is useful if you are studying languages that display text from right to left (RTL), such as Arabic or Hebrew. This setting currently only controls editing; to make sure the text displays correctly during review, you’ll need to adjust your template.

After you’ve added fields, you’ll probably want to add them to the front or back of your cards. For more information on that, please see the templates section.

Changing Deck / Note Type

While adding, you can click on the top left button to change note type, and the top right button to change deck. The window that opens up will not only allow you to select a deck or note type, but also to add new decks or manage your note types.

Using Decks Appropriately

Decks are designed to divide your content up into broad categories that you wish to study separately, such as English, Geography, and so on. You may be tempted to create lots of little decks to keep your content organized, such as “my geography book chapter 1”, or “food verbs”, but this is not recommended, for the following reasons:

  • Lots of little decks mean you end up reviewing cards in a recognizable order. Whether it’s because you’re clicking on each deck in turn (which is slow) or you’ve added a number of decks under a single parent deck, you’ll end up seeing all the “chapter 1” or “food verb” cards together. This makes it easier to answer the cards, as you can guess them from the context, which leads to weaker memories. When you need to recall the word or phrase outside Anki, you won’t have the luxury of being shown related content first!

  • Anki was not designed to handle many decks (more than several dozen), and it will slow down as you add more – especially if you’re studying on a mobile client. A few extra decks is not going to make a noticeable difference, but if you have many decks the delays will start to add up.

Instead of creating lots of little decks, it’s a better idea to use tags and/or fields to classify your content. Instead of creating a “food verbs” decks for example, you could add those cards to your main language study deck, and tag the cards with “food” and “verb”. Each card can have multiple tags, which means you can do things like search for all verbs, or all food-related vocabulary, or all verbs that are related to food.

For those who like to stay very organized, you can add fields to your notes to classify your content, such as “book”, “page”, and so on. Anki supports searching in specific fields, which means you can do a search for “book:'my book' page:63” and immediately find what you’re looking for.

Anki’s custom study and filtered deck features make this especially powerful, as you can create temporary decks out of search terms. This allows you to review your content mixed together in a single deck most of the time (for optimum memory), but also create temporary decks when you need to focus on particular material, such as before a test. The general rule is that if you always want to be able to study some content separately, it should be in a normal deck, and if you only occasionally need to be able to study it separately (for a test, when under a backlog, etc), tags/fields and filtered decks are better.

学习

当你找到了喜欢的记忆库或加入了一些笔记到记忆库里,就可以开始学习了。

记忆库

在Anki中,你可以选择当前记忆库或任何集合中包含的记忆库来学习。

在记忆库界面,你的记忆库会显示在一个列表里。有两栏数字:到期新建到期 是需要复习和当前学习中的卡片数量。新建 是指当天要学习的新卡片数量。

当你点击某个记忆库,它会变成 当前记忆库,然后Anki会 切换到学习界面。你可以随时回到记忆库列表来改变当前选择的记忆库, 只需要点击主界面上方的“记忆库”按钮即可。 (你也可以使用 学习记忆库功能来从键盘选择一个新的记忆库, 或者你可以按下“s”键来学习当前选择的记忆库。)

你可以点击记忆库右侧的齿轮按钮来重命名或删除一个记忆库、 改变选项或 导出记忆库。

学习概述

点击记忆库开始学习后,你会看到一个界面显示了你今天需要学习多少张卡片。 这个被称为 记忆库概览界面。这些卡片被划分为三种类型:

  • 新建表示这些卡片你下载或输入了,但之前从未学习过。

  • 学习中表示这些卡片你在近期第一次见过,且仍然需要学习。

  • 待复习表示这些卡片你之前已经学习过,但现在需要复习以不遗忘它们。

点击现在学习按钮来开始学习。 Anki会不断地向你展示卡片直到当天待展示的卡片已经没有了。

学习时,你可以按下键盘上的“s”键来返回记忆库概览界面。

问题

一张卡片在展示时,先只显示问题。 然后思考答案,点击 显示答案或按下空格键,答案就会显示。 你可能会花些时间去回想答案,但一般来说,如果你不能在10秒内想起来, 那么放弃然后查看答案会比冥思苦想要好。

答案显示后,你应该将你想的答案和显示的答案进行对照, 然后告诉Anki你记得怎么样。如果你觉得自己不能准确地比对答案,也可以让Anki 强制你输入答案而不是仅仅将答案给你看。

记忆情况评级按钮的数量取决于卡片是否被学习复习

学习

当学习新卡片或那些你已经遗忘的卡片时,Anki会向你展示卡片一次或多次以帮助你记住它们。 每次被称为一个 学习步伐,默认有两个步伐:1分钟和10分钟。 你可以在 记忆库选项改变学习步伐的数量和间隔时间。

在学习时有三个评级按钮:

重来 将卡片移到第一个步伐。

一般 将卡片移到下一个步伐。如果卡片已在最后一个步伐, 卡片被转为复习卡片(它 已毕业)。默认情况下,当卡片到学习步伐的最后时,它会在第二天再次显示, 之后会有越来越长的间隔时间(参阅下一部分)。

简单 立即将卡片转为复习卡片,即使还剩一些步伐。 默认情况下,卡片会在4天后再次展示,之后会有越来越长的间隔时间。 在重学模式,简单按钮不会显示,它会有和“一般”相同的间隔时间。

当卡片第一次显示时,开始步伐一。这意味着,第一次回答卡片一般时, 它会在10分钟内再次展示,而开始的1分钟步伐会被跳过。如果你点击了重来,那么卡片会在1分钟内再次展示。

你可以使用键盘上的1、2和3这三个按键来选择一个特定的按钮。 1是 重来,按下空格键会选择一般

如果没有其它卡片来向你展示,Anki会再次展示学习卡片,即使它们的延迟还没有结束。 如果你倾向于等待足够的学习延迟,你可以在 首选项里改变这一行为。

复习

当卡片在之前学习过,准备复习时,有四个按钮来评级你的答案:

重来 将你的答案视为错误,并且让Anki在以后更频繁地展示该卡片, 这张卡片被称为 失误。请参阅失误部分来了解更多有关失误复习如何处理的信息。

困难 在比上次稍微长些的间隔后展示该卡片, 并且告诉Anki在以后安排该卡片时更加保守。

一般 告诉Anki上次的间隔基本合适,卡片难度适中。 默认情况下,卡片会在大约是之前的间隔时间的2 1/2倍的间隔后展示。 因此,如果你在10天前见过该卡片,到下一次会间隔大约25天。

简单 告诉Anki你发现间隔时间太短了。 卡片在将来会被安排在比 一般更久,Anki会在将来安排该卡片时更加大胆,因为简单迅速增加了间隔, 它只适合最简单的卡片。通常,你应该发现自己回答 一般

在学习卡片时,你可以使用键盘上的1-4来选择一个答案,按下空格键会选择一般

待学计数和时间估计

问题显示时,Anki在窗口底部显示三个数字,像12 + 34 + 56。 这些分别代表新卡片数,学习中的卡片数,以及待复习的卡片数。 如果你不想看见这些数字,可以在Anki的首选项里将它们关闭。

注意
复习数量为队列中需要完成所有卡片的数量,而不是卡片的数量。 如果你为失误卡片设定了多重步伐,当你答错一张卡片时,它会增加到多于一个,因为卡片需要再展示几次。

当显示答案时,Anki会在每个学习评级按钮上显示该卡片下次出现的预估时间。 如果你不想看见这些预估时间,你可以在Anki的 首选项里禁用掉。

注意
Anki为复习间隔额外添加了微小的随机变化,以防止一起加入的且相同评级的卡片扎堆。 这个变化不会显示在时间估计,但会在选择了按钮后被应用。

编辑和更多

你可以点击左下方的编辑按钮来编辑当前笔记。 当你完成编辑后,你会返回学习。编辑界面与 添加笔记界面非常类似。

在复习界面的右下方是一个标签为更多的按钮。 这个按钮提供了一些你能对当前卡片或笔记进行的其它操作:

标记笔记

为当前笔记添加一个“marked”标签,从而使得它在浏览器里很容易找到。 当你需要在以后对该笔记进行一些操作时,这样做非常有用,比如,当你回家后查找一个单词等。 在复习时,已标记的笔记也会在右上角显示一个小星星。

搁置卡片/笔记

将待复习的卡片或笔记隐藏至次日。 如果你想在这之前取消搁置,你可以点击 记忆库概览界面的“取消搁置”按钮。 如果你现在还不能回答卡片或你想在以后回顾,这样做很有用。 笔记下的某张卡片学习后,该笔记下的其它卡片(相关新卡片)会 自动搁置。 如果学习中的卡片被搁置,会在搁置前移入新卡片队列或复习队列。

暂停卡片/笔记

将待复习的卡片或笔记隐藏,直到手动取消暂停(点击浏览器的暂停按钮)。 如果你想一段时间不复习这条笔记,但又不想删除它时,这样做很有用。 如果学习中的卡片被暂停,会在暂停前移入新卡片队列或复习队列。

删除笔记

删除笔记,该笔记下的所有卡片也将被删除。

选项

编辑当前记忆库的首选项。

重新播放音频

如果卡片在正面或背面有音频,再次播放它。

录制自己的声音

从你的麦克风录制来检查你的发音,这个录音是暂时的,当你切换到下一张卡片后就没有了。 如果你想为卡片永久地添加音频,你可以在编辑窗口那样做。

重新播放自己的声音

重新播放你之前录制的声音(一般在显示答案后这样做)。

显示顺序

学习时,显示的卡片来自选择的记忆库或它包含的记忆库。 因此,如果你选择了记忆库“French”,“French::Vocab” 和 “French::MyTextbook::Lesson 1”也会显示。

对于新卡片或复习,Anki获取以字母表顺序排列的记忆库中的卡片。 因此,在上面的例子中,你会先获取来自“French”的卡片,然后是“My Textbook”,接着最后是“Vocab”。 你可以借此控制卡片出现的顺序,将优先级高的卡片置于列表中出现级别高的记忆库里。 电脑在以字母表的顺序排列文本时,字符“-”位于字母之前,字符“~”位于字母之后。 因此,你可以将记忆库命名为“-Vocab”来使它最先出现,将记忆库命名为“~MyTextbook”来强制使其最后出现。

新卡片和复习是分开获取的,Anki不会等到两个队列都空时才开始下一个记忆库。 因此,可能新卡片来自的记忆库和复习的记忆库不同,反之亦然。 如果你不想这样,直接点击你想要学习的记忆库而不是它的父级记忆库。

因为学习中的卡片有点时间敏感,它们从所有的记忆库里立即获取,然后按应有的顺序显示。

为了控制给定记忆库里待复习的卡片的出现顺序,或者将新卡片从顺序改为乱序,请参阅记忆库选项。 想要更细致的新卡片顺序,你可以在 浏览器里改变顺序。

相关卡片和搁置

回想在基础里提到的,Anki能为你输入的每一项创建超过一张的卡片, 比如一张正面→背面的卡片和一张背面→正面的卡片,或者来自相同文本的两张不同的完形填空。 这些关联的卡片被称为 相关卡片。Anki会尽量保证相关卡片不会紧挨着显示,因为那样通常不好。

当你回答有相关卡片的卡片时,Anki通过自动搁置它们来防止相关卡片在相同环节显示。 搁置的卡片会隐藏不复习,直到到了隔日,或你手动取消搁置。 在 记忆库概览界面的底部,你可以看到“取消搁置”按钮,点击它即可手动取消搁置。

Anki只会搁置新的或待复习的相关卡片。 它不会隐藏学习中的卡片,因为时间对于它们非常重要。 另一方面,当你学习一张学习中的卡片时,任何新建/待复习的相关卡片都会被搁置。

如果你想在学习或复习卡片时每天看一条笔记下的多张卡片(前提是该笔记下有多张卡片), 你可以在 记忆库选项里禁用“搁置相关卡片到隔日”。

Keyboard Shortcuts

Most of the common operations in Anki have keyboard shortcuts. Most of them are discoverable in the interface: menu items list their shortcuts next to them, and hovering the mouse cursor over a button will generally show its shortcut in a tooltip.

When studying, either space or enter will show the answer. When the answer is shown, you can use space or enter to select the Good button. You can use the 1-4 keys to select a specific ease button. Many people find it convenient to answer most cards with space and keep one finger on 1 for when they forget.

The "Study Deck" item in the Tools menu allows you to quickly switch to a deck with the keyboard. You can trigger it with the / key. When opened, it will display all of your decks and show a filter area at the top. As you type characters, Anki will display only decks matching the characters you type. You can add a space to separate multiple search terms, and Anki will show only decks that match all the terms. So “ja 1” or “on1 ja” would both match a deck called “Japanese::Lesson1”.

Falling Behind

If you fall behind in your reviews, Anki will prioritize cards that have been waiting the longest. It does this by taking the 200 cards that have been waiting the longest and showing them to you in a random order up until your daily review limit. This ordering ensures that no cards will be left waiting indefinitely, but it means that if you introduce new cards, their reviews won’t appear until you’ve gotten through your backlog.

If you wish to change the order of the overdue reviews, you can do so by creating a filtered deck.

When you answer cards that have been waiting for a while, Anki factors in that delay when determining the next time a card should be shown. Please see the section on Anki’s spaced-repetition algorithm for more information.

编辑

特性

在复习或浏览的时候添加编辑笔记会显示编辑器。

左上角有两个按钮可分别打开“区域…(字段)”“卡片…”窗口。

右侧的按钮可设置文字格式:加粗、斜体和下划线与其他文字处理程序中的作用相同。紧接着的两个按钮可以设置上标和下标,在编辑化学式如 H 2O ,或简单的数学式如x2时会很有用。

带红叉图标的按钮可清除当前选定文本的所有格式,包括颜色、加粗等。

下一个按钮可改变文本颜色。

点击回形针图标按钮可从计算机硬盘选择音频、图像和视频附在笔记。 另外,也可以将媒体文件复制到剪贴板(例如,右击网页中的图像并选择复制图像)然后粘贴到需要添加到的区域(字段)。更多有关多媒体文件的信息请察看 “多媒体” 章节。

点击红色圆圈图标的按钮可以使用计算机话筒录制声音并附到笔记。

最后一个按钮可以为笔记添加叫做 LaTeX的高级数学标记或编辑基本格式。

大多数按钮可以使用快捷键操作。鼠标指针悬停在按钮上会显示快捷键提示。对于LaTeX/HTML菜单, 使用Ctrl+t然后按t、e或m可分别调出三种LaTeX类型,按Ctrl+Shift+x可编辑 HTML。

填空

填空 是指在句子中隐藏一个或多个字词的过程。 比如这样一个句子:

堪培拉成立于1913年。

将“1913”创建为填空,随后句子会变成:

堪培拉成立于[...]年。

有时被以这种方式移除的部分被称为 遮蔽

对于需要用到填空的情况,参看此处的第五条规则

Anki提供了专门的填空笔记类型,可以方便地创建填空。选择Cloze(填空)笔记类型并在 "Text(文本)"区域(字段)输入文字可创建填空卡片, 然后使用鼠标选定需要隐藏的文本,点击“…”按钮,Anki会替换其为:

堪培拉成立于{{c1::1913}}年。

“c1”部分指句子中的填空部分。 用户可以根据需要创建更多的填空部分。例如,如果 选定“堪培拉”并再次点击“…”按钮,文本会显示如下:

{{c2:: 堪培拉}}成立于{{c1::1913}}年。

添加上面的笔记,Anki会创建两张卡片。第一张卡片会于正面 显示:

堪培拉成立于[...]年。

而在背面显示完整句子。另一张卡片 则在正面显示:

[...]成立于1913年。

在同一张卡片上也可以省略多个部分。在上面的例子中,如果 将c2改成c1,则只会创建一张同时隐藏“堪培拉” 和“1913”的卡片;如果在创建填空时按住Alt键(Mac上为Option键), Anki会自动使用相同序号的而不是递增序列。

填空类型不需要隐藏完整单词,所以如果在上面的例子中选择 “培拉”而不是“堪培拉”,正面 将显示为“堪[…] 成立于1913年。”,可以作为答案提示。

也可以将不同文本作为答案提示,如果将原来的句子 替换为:

堪培拉::城市成立于1913年。

然后在选定“堪培拉::城市”后点击“…”按钮,Anki会将双冒号(英文标点) 后的文本看作提示,文本改变为:

{{c1::堪培拉::城市}}成立于1913年。

复习时,卡片会显示为:

[城市]成立于1913年。

关于在填空中测试准确拼写能力的信息, 请察看 “输入答案”章节。

请注意,Anki不支持嵌套填空。例如, 下面的区域(字段)是无效的:

{{c1::堪培拉{{c2::成立}}}}于1913年。

如果需要创建文本重叠的填空,可以在填空笔记中添加另一个Text(文本)字段,再添加到 模板里,之后,当创建 笔记时,将文本分别粘贴到不同的区域(字段)中,如:

Text1 field: {{c1::堪培拉成立}}于1913年

Text2 field: {{c2::堪培拉}}成立于1913年

填空笔记类型默认的第二条区域(字段)叫做Extra(额外信息), 会在 每张卡片的背面显示。 它可以用来添加一些有用的笔记或额外信息。

Anki将填空看作特殊的笔记类型,不能基于通常 的笔记类型创建。如果需要自定义,请确保原样复制已有的Cloze(填空)类型, 而不是使用其他笔记类型。

输入外来字符和音符

Windows,Mac和Linux为输入大多数语言提供了内建的支持。 使我们不必购买不同的键盘。某些知识卡片程序试图通过 提供一组输入每个外来字符的可点击的按钮组或自建的转换工具 来实现该支持。 但这使得输入速度大大降低。有人 写道

……顺便说一句, 如果你正在学习任何一门带有异国字符的外语, 即使仅仅是西班牙语的ñ, 我鼓励你去了解一下怎样高效地输入这些字符。 当我刚开始学习日语时, 我不知道怎样输入日语字符。我只能复制再粘贴以便制作知识卡片或与人交流。 并且如果我想要输入一些原创的东西, 就意味着我要煞费苦心地寻找, 然后复制粘贴每个字符。 我在美国购买的电脑想要获得日语输入法支持就是一种痛苦 (而且这包括因为安装微软的日语输入法, 还需要从朋友那里借Windows XP磁盘)。但这是绝对超值的。 回想起来, 是我最初开始学习日语的第一步时必须要做的。

如果你正在学习一种自右至左书写的语言,还有许多其他问题需要考虑。 更多信息请查看 此页

要了解更多,请在谷歌查询诸如“在Mac上输入日语”或“在Windows上输入德语”,对此有大量可用的 优秀资料。

注意
Anki基于的该工具包已经解决了一些输入方法的 麻烦,比如在Mac OS X上按住某些键可以选择重音字符。 所幸的是,通常有其他可以正常工作的输入方法 请针对自己的操作系统探索其他选择。

卡片与模板

正如在 基础类型章节中所提到的,Anki可基于用户添加的笔记, 自动创建卡片(如果还没有阅读过基础类型章节请先阅读此章节, 因为本章节下面的内容假设您已经阅读了此章节 )。

当通过点击“卡片…”按钮添加或编辑材料, 可以配置Anki要创建的卡片并决定卡片上显示的内容。 窗口的最顶端有一组标签,一个标签对应一个卡片类型。 如果需要为当前的笔记类型添加另一个卡片类型,可以点击右上角的加号按钮。 同样,如果需要删除一个卡片类型, 可以点击标签上的×关闭。

左上角为正面模板, 左下角为背面模板。 二者之间为卡片样式区域。

在Anki中,模板使用用于网页编码的超文本标记语言(HTML)书写。 样式区域为用于网页样式的层叠样式表(CSS)。

右侧为当前选定卡片的正面和背面的预览。 如果在打开添加笔记窗口时, 预览将基于添加笔记窗口中输入的文本。如果在打开编辑笔记窗口时, 预览将基于笔记中的内容。 如果通过工具→管理笔记类型菜单项, Anki会在内容的位置以带括号的形式显示每个区域(字段)名。

在窗口底端有一个“更多”按钮可提供卡片的重命名和重新定位功能, 以及以下两个选项:

  • 覆盖记忆库(牌组)选项允许改变当前卡片类型生成的卡片放置的记忆库(牌组)。 默认情况下,卡片被放置在 添加笔记窗口中选择的记忆库(牌组)。如果在此指定记忆库(牌组), 该卡片类型会放置在用户指定的记忆库(牌组),而不是添加笔记窗口中列出的记忆库(牌组)。 如果需要把卡片分别放入不同的记忆库(牌组)。 (例如当学习一门语言,把默写卡放入一个记忆库(牌组), 而把辨认卡放入另一个)。 可以再次通过选择覆盖记忆库(牌组)选项检查卡片目前要去那个记忆库(牌组)。

  • 浏览器外观选项允许为浏览器的正面和背面列的显示设置不同的(也许是简化的) 模板; 更多信息可查看 浏览器外观

卡片反转

如果需要同时创建两个问答方向的卡片 (比如同时创建“大きい”→“大”和“大”→“大きい”)时,这有几种方法。 最简单的方法选择内建的“Basic (and reversed card)[基本(且反转卡片)]”笔记类型。 这会生成两张分别使用不同方向的卡片。

如果需要仅为某些材料生成反转卡片 (也许用户只是需要花时间学习最重要的材料的反转卡片, 或者某些卡片反转后题目意义不合理), 可以选择“Basic (optional reversed card)[基本(选择性反转卡片)]”笔记类型。 当只在前两个区域(字段)中输入,该笔记类型识别只生成一个单向的卡片; 如果在“Add Reverse(添加反转)”区域(字段)附加性地输入某些文字(比如一个y), Anki 同样会生成一张反转卡片,该区域(字段)中的内容不会在卡片上显示。

如果稍后决定不需要之前添加的反转卡片, 可通过清除“Add Reverse”区域(字段)中的文本删除之。同样的, 想要添加反转卡片,可以在“Add Reverse(添加反转)”区域(字段)添加文本。 如果没有在一开始使用选择性反转卡片笔记类型,也可以在浏览器中使用编辑 → 改变笔记类型菜单项来修改。

注意
为了防止用户编辑误操作而丢失进度信息, Anki并不会在用户清除“Add Reverse(添加反转)”区域(字段)中的文本时自动删除卡片。 为了完成删除操作,在主窗口中运行工具→空卡片…菜单项。

如果使用更加复杂的笔记类型(例如,对应三张卡片的笔记) 和希望只在某些条件下生成特定的卡片, 请察看 条件替换 章节。

基础模板

最基本的模板看起来有些像这样:

{{正面}}

把文本放入大括号内,Anki就会查找该文本名称的区域(字段) ,并将其替换为该区域(字段)的实际内容。 可以添加尽可能多的区域(字段)。

注意
字段名区分大小写。如果字段名为Front, 写成 {{front}} 将无法正常使用。

模板并不限于区域(字段)的列表。 模板也可以包含任意文本。例如,在学习各国首都并且已经创建了一个包含“国家”区域(字段)的笔记类型, 可以创建像这样的正面模板:

{{国家}}的首都叫什么?

默认的背面模板看起来有些像这样:

{{FrontSide}}

<hr id=answer>

{{背面}}

代码的意思是:“显示正面的文本,然后划一条分割线, 再然后显示“背面”区域(字段)”。

id=answer的部分告诉Anki问题和答案之间的分界所在。 这使得在较长的卡片中, Anki可以在用户按下 显示答案按钮后自动滚动到答案开头(尤其是在屏幕较小的移动设备上非常有用)。 如果不想在答案开头有水平线, 可以用其他HTML元素比如段落或div来替代。

答案检查

可参考YouTube上的 关于此特性的视频(中文版)

如果需要输入答案并让Anki对比自己输入的答案和正确答案, 可以通过修改模板实现。 想像一下正面和背面的模板如:

{{母语词}}
{{FrontSide}}

<hr id=answer>

{{外语词}}

为了输入外语词,并检查是否正确, 需要修改正面模板以便看起来像这样:

{{母语词}}
{{type:外语词}}

请注意在需要对比的区域(字段)开头加上了type:。 因为卡片背面模板已经有了FrontSide字段,答案输入框在背面同样也会出现。 (如果卡片背面模板没有FrontSide字段, 还需要在背面模板添加输入指令。)

复习时,Anki会显示一个输入答案的文本框, 在敲击回车或点击显示答案按钮后,Anki会显示用户输入的答案正确与错误之处。 文本框字体大小为该区域(字段)的字体大小 (编辑卡片时可通过点击“区域...”按钮修改)。

该特性并不会改变如何回答卡片的问题, 所以这仍然决定于用户是否记住。

注意
一张卡片只能使用一个拼写对比。 如果将上述文本多次添加并不会起作用, 它也只支持单行文字,所以不能与包含多行文字的区域(字段)比较。

Anki使用等宽字体进行答案比较以便“provided” 和 “correct”这样的词的各部分能对齐。 如果需要改变字体, 可以将以下文本放在样式区的末尾:

code#typeans { font-family: "myfontname"; }

高级用户可以通过css类 typeGoodtypeBadtypeMissed改变默认输入答案的颜色。 在输入时只有电脑版Anki支持这些类。

也可以在填空卡片中使用直接输入答案的功能。 为此需要在卡片的正面和背面都添加{{type:cloze:Text}}, 背面模板看起来是这样的:

{{cloze:Text}}
{{type:cloze:Text}}
{{Extra}}

请注意由于填空类型模板不使用FrontSide字段, 这必须在填空笔记类型同时添加。

如果(填空卡片中)有多个区域被省略,(在输入答案时)可在文本框中将答案用逗号(英文标点)分隔。

注意
在浏览器的 “预览”对话框中答案输入文本框不会出现。 而在复习或在卡片类型窗口预览时则会显示。

换行

模板语言需要特殊的命令创建新行。 例如,如果在模板中书写如下:

壹
贰

预览时,实际显示:

壹 贰

为了另起一行,需要在行末添加一个代码 <br> ,像这样:

壹<br>
贰

br代码代表"(line) br(eak)[断行]".

同样应用于区域(字段)。要显示两个各占一行的区域(字段), 可以使用:

{{字段1}}<br>
{{字段2}}

卡片样式

在正面和背面模板之间为卡片样式区域。 在这里可以改变卡片的背景颜色、默认字体和文本对齐等等。

可用的标准选项有:

font-family(字体类型)

用在卡片上的字体名。 如果使用的字体名称中有空格,像"MS Unicode",就需要使用双引号(英文标点)将字体名括起来,就像前面的例子。 也可以在一张卡片中使用多个字体; 关于此,请看下文。

font-size(字体大小)

以像素为单位的字体的尺寸。修改时请确保在后面有写px。

text-align(文本对齐)

文本是否应按中心对齐、左对齐或右对齐。

color(字体颜色)

文本的颜色使用简单的颜色名如blue(蓝色)lightyellow(浅黄)等等会起作用, 也可以通过HTML颜色代码使用任意颜色。 更多信息请查看 此页

background-color (背景色)

卡片背景的颜色。

样式区可以填入任何CSS代码——高级用户可能希望进行, 例如,像添加背景图片或渐变色。 如果需要知道如何获得特定的格式, 请在网上查询如何使用CSS的信息, 因为网上有很多可用的文档信息。

样式在所有卡片间是共享的, 这意味着,调整样式会影响该笔记类型的所有卡片。当然,也可以对特定卡片指定样式。 下面的例子会对除了第一张外的所有卡片使用黄色背景:

.card { background-color: yellow; }
.card1 { background-color: blue; }

需要注意的另一点是,Anki默认会收缩图片以适应屏幕。 可以在样式区末尾添加下面的文本改变这一点:

img { max-width: none; max-height: none; }

当你试着改变图片样式,会发现出现在被标记卡片的星星也会受到影响 (例如,变得离谱的大), 可以用下面的文本锁定:

img#star { ... }

区域(字段)样式

默认样式会应用于整张卡片。 也可以使卡片的某些区域(字段)或部分使用不同的字体、颜色等等。 这在学习外语时尤其重要, 因为Anki有时不使用合适的字体无法正确显示字符。

比方说,现在有一个“表达” 区域(字段), 需要它使用OSX泰文字体“Ayuthaya”。想象一下,模板已经是这样:

什么是{{表达}}?

{{Notes}}

我们需要做的是用HTML代码将需要设置的文本包起来 在文本前面添加以下内容:

<div class=我的样式1>

以此结尾:

</div>

通过像上面那样把文本括起来, 就等于告诉Anki使用名为“我的样式1”的自定义样式设置被包起来的文本,稍后创建“我的样式1”。

因此如果希望整个“什么是…?”表达式使用泰文字体, 可以:

<div class=我的样式1>什么是{{表达}}?</div>

{{Notes}}

而如果只需要表达区域(字段)本身使用泰文字体, 可以:

什么是 <div class=我的样式1>{{表达}}</div>?

{{Notes}}

模板编辑完成后,转到模板之间的样式区。 编辑前,应该是像这样的:

.card {
 font-family: arial;
 font-size: 20px;
 text-align: center;
 color: black;
 background-color: white;
}

在末尾添加自己的新样式,看起来是这样:

.card {
 font-family: arial;
 font-size: 20px;
 text-align: center;
 color: black;
 background-color: white;
}

.我的样式1 {
 font-family: ayuthaya;
}

在样式定义中可以包含任何想要的格式。 如果还想要增加字体大小,可以将“我的样式1”修改成像这样:

.我的样式1 {
 font-family: ayuthaya;
 font-size: 30px;
}

还可以为自己的记忆库(牌组)嵌入自定义的字体, 这样就不需要在自己的电脑或移动设备上另外安装。 更多信息请查看 字体安装章节。

关于可以在此使用的样式选项,请查看卡片样式章节。

提示区域(字段)

允许在卡片背面的开头添加一个隐藏的区域(字段),直到明确需要时,可使其显示。 可称其为 提示区域(字段)。 在添加提示前,请您牢记,在Anki中使问题越容易回答, 在现实生活中遇到问题越不可能回忆起来。 在继续前请阅读 http://www.supermemo.com/articles/20rules.htm中的最少信息原则

首先,如果没有准备好,需要添加一个存放提示的区域(字段)。 如果不确定怎么做,请先察看 区域(字段)章节。

假设您已经创建了一个叫我的字段的区域(字段), 可以通过在模板中添加下面的代码让Anki将其包含在卡片中但默认隐藏:

{{hint:我的字段}}

这样会现实一个链接标签“显示提示(实际为“显示我的字段”--译注)”; 当点击它时,该区域(字段)的内容会显示在卡片上。 (如果 我的字段为空,什么也不会显示)

如果显示了问题的提示然后显示答案, 提示会重新隐藏。 如果想要在答案显示后提示继续显示, 需要从背面模板中移除{{FrontSide}},然后手动添加要出现的区域(字段)

注意
现在还不能将提示用于音频 —  因为无论是否点击提示链接,音频都会播放。

特殊字段

有一些特殊区域(字段)可以用于模板之中:

笔记标签: {{Tags}}

笔记类型: {{Type}}

所属记忆库(牌组): {{Deck}}

卡片类型(卡片模板中的标签名--译注)("正向"等等): {{Card}}

正面模板的内容(仅在背面模板有效): {{FrontSide}}

FrontSide字段不会包含卡片正面的音频。 如果需要卡片的正反两面都有同一段音频, 就需要同样在卡片背面手动添加音频区域(字段)。

和其他区域(字段)一样,特殊字段的名称也是区分大小写的。

卡片的生成与删除

Anki不会创建空白正面的卡片。 因此如果“我的字段”为空,并且一张卡片的正面模板中只包含这个区域(字段), 那么它就不会被创建。

如果因为所有卡片的正面可能为空而无法创建, 添加笔记窗口就会警告, 并且不允许添加该条笔记直到达到卡片生成的条件。

当编辑一条之前添加的笔记时, 之前为空但编辑后添加了内容不再为空, Anki会自动创建额外的一张或几张卡片。 但是编辑时使得原先非空的笔记变为空白,Anki不会立即删除它, 以防导致意外数据丢失。要删除空卡片,在主窗口使用工具→空白卡片...菜单项。 之后会显示一个空卡片列表并可以选择删除它们。

由于卡片生成的方式,不能手动删除单个卡片 (他们只会在下次编辑笔记时,被再创建)。 相反,应该使得关联条件替换区域(字段)为空,然后使用空卡片选项。 (如果没有设定好的区域(字段)控制卡片生成, 请察看 卡片反转选择性卡片生成。)如果需要对多条笔记批量执行, 可以在浏览器中使用 查找和替换 功能。

Anki在卡片生成时不会考虑特殊字段或非字段文本。 因此如果正面模板如下, 在“国家”字段为空的情况下,不会生成卡片:

{{国家}}在地图上的那个地方?

选择性卡片生成

开始本章节前,请先阅读前一章节卡片的生成与删除

有时需要仅仅为材料中的某些内容生成额外的卡片, 比如为了测试回想一系列单词中最重要的内容的能力。 这可以在笔记中添加一条额外的字段、 并在那些需要生成的卡片添加某些文本(比如“1”)于该字段来实现。 然后在卡片模板, 可以使卡片的生成取决于该字段为非空。 更多关于此的信息请察看下面的条件替换章节。

媒体与LaTeX引用

Anki不会为媒体引用而扫描模板,因为这样很缓慢。 这对在模板中包含媒体的情况也有影响。

静态引用声音/图像

如果希望在所有卡片上包含相同的图像或声音 (例如每张卡片上方的公司标志):

  1. 重命名文件使其以下划线开头,如“_logo.jpg”。 下划线提示Anki该文件被模板使用并在分享记忆库(牌组)时同时导出。

  2. 在卡片正面或背面模板添加该媒体文件的引用,如:

<img src="_logo.jpg">

区域(字段)引用

不允许媒体引用区域(字段)。 因为它们在复习时不一定显示,而且在检查未使用的媒体、导入/导出等情况均会失效。 无效的例子如下:

<img src="{{Expression}}.jpg">

[sound:{{Word}}]

[latex]{{Field 1}}[/latex]

反之,应该在区域(字段)中包含媒体引用。 更多信息请察看 导入 章节。

条件替换

卡片上的某个字段为空或非空可决定卡片是否包含某些文本、字段或HTML。 例如:

文本始终显示。

{{#字段名}}
本条文本只在字段名字段非空时显示。
{{/字段名}}

{{^字段名}}
本条文本只在字段名字段为空时显示。
{{/字段名}}

实际的例子是仅在(标签)字段非空时显示标签:

{{#Tags}}标签:{{Tags}}{{/Tags}}

或者需要在卡片背面有额外的笔记的情况下, 卡片正面一个特定字段改用蓝色显示,(也许有笔记的事实可以提示用户应该花多一点时间思考答案)。可以设置样式如下:

{{#笔记}}<span style="color:blue;">{{/笔记}}
{{要设定格式的字段}}
{{#笔记}}</span>{{/笔记}}

也可以使用条件替换来控制卡片的生成。 因为Anki不会 生成 含有空白正面的卡片, 考虑一个在正面有两个区域(字段)的卡片:

{{表达}}
{{笔记}}

一般的,无论表达字段还是笔记字段含有文本, 卡片都会生成(前提不是排序域字段--译注)。如果只想在 表达字段非空时生成卡片, 可以修改模板如下:

{{#表达}}
{{表达}}
{{笔记}}
{{/表达}}

如果想要两个字段同时非空可以使用条件替换:

{{#表达}}
{{#笔记}}
{{表达}}
{{笔记}}
{{/笔记}}
{{/表达}}

请记住,正如 卡片生成 章节所提到的,只有当把条件替换代码放在卡片 正面才有效;如果在背面这样做, 就会得到一张空白背面的卡片。同样的,因为这是通过检查正面字段是否为空来执行的,确保将 整个 正面包含在条件替换代码中就显得很重要;例如,下面的例子就如预料中不会起作用:

{{#表达}}
{{表达}}
{{/表达}}
{{笔记}}

默认情况(不使用条件替换代码--译注)可视为“或”条件—— 第一条字段或第二条字段非空时将生成卡片,其他以此类推。 上面的例子可视为“与”条件—— 第一条和第二条字段都非空时将生成卡片,其他以此类推。

警告:Anki当前不能混合使用“与”和“或”条件。 因此下面“需要 表达笔记第三字段非空”的模板为无效的:

{{#表达}}
{{#笔记}}
{{表达}}
{{笔记}}
{{/笔记}}
{{/表达}}

{{第三字段}}

另一个警告是否定的表达不能控制卡片生成。 这是指用{{^字段}}把模板包起来不会达到预期的效果。

填空模板

请先察看 填空 章节以为背景知识。

填空笔记类型作用与常规笔记类型不同。 不同于可自定义的多种卡片类型, 它是一个被一个笔记的所有填空共享的单一类型。

正如上面的卡片生成章节中提到的, 常规卡片的生成取决于正面的一个或多个区域(字段)非空。 填空笔记类型的生成则不同:

  • Anki在正面模板查找一个或多个填空替换, 如 {{cloze:字段名}}.

  • 然后在字段名区域(字段)中查找所有填空引用,如 {{c1::文本}}.

  • 对每一个单独的序号会产生一张卡片。

条件替换提供了特殊字段可以检查正在呈现哪张卡片。 例如,如果要在第一个填空题显示“提示1”区域(字段), 在第二个填空题显示“提示2”区域(字段), 可使用如下模板:

{{cloze:Text}}

{{#c1}}
{{提示1}}
{{/c1}}

{{#c2}}
{{提示2}}
{{/c2}}

其他HTML代码

模板可包含任意HTML代码, 这意味着所有可能用于互联网网页的布局也可以用于卡片中。 类似表格、表单、图像、外链等均可支持。 以表格为例,可以改变布局, 使卡片的正反面以左右形式取代原来的上下布局显示。

覆盖所有的HTML特性超出了本手册的范围, 但如果想了解更多, 网上有大量优秀的HTML入门指南可供参考。

还可以使用区域(字段)替换创建词典链接。 假如用户正在学习一门语言并且最喜欢的在线词典允许使用类似下面的网页URL查询文本:

http://example.com/search?q=要查的词

可以在模板中添加下面的代码来自动生成链接:

{{表达}}

<a href="http://example.com/search?q={{表达}}">在词典中查询</a>

上面的模板允许在复习时通过点击链接来查询每个笔记的表达, 但是有个警告, 请看下一章节。

HTML剥离

区域(字段)像模板一样使用HTML。 像上面例子中的词典链接,如果 表达字段中包含的是无格式的“要查的词”, 则在HTML中会保持相同:“要查的词”。 但是当区域(字段)中包含格式,则会引入多余的HTML代码。例如“要查的词”为黑体, 实际的HTML是"<b>要查的词</b>".

这对于类似词典链接的东西就出现一个问题。 在上面的例子中,词典链接会最终保持这样:

<a href="http://example.com/search?q=<b>要查的词</b>">在词典中查询</a>

链接中多余的字符可能会使词典网站混淆实际要查的词, 从而可能无法得到任何匹配项。

为解决此问题,Anki提供了当区域(字段)替换后从其中剥离格式的功能。 如果给字段名称加一个“text:”的前缀, Anki就不会包含任何格式信息。 所以即使带有格式的文本也可以运行的词典链接将是这样的:

<a href="http://example.com/search?q={{text:表达}}">在词典中查询</a>

浏览器外观

如果卡片模板非常复杂, 在 卡片列表 中的问题与答案(也被称为正面和背面)列可能难以阅读。 “浏览器外观” 选项允许定义一个仅用于浏览器的定制模板,这样可以只将重要的区域(字段) 包含进来并且如果需要还可以改变顺序。语法与标准卡片模板中相同。

RTL(自右至左的)文本

如果您正在学习一门自右至左阅读的语言, 就需要像这样调节模板:

<div dir=rtl>{{FieldThatHasRTLTextInIt}}</div>

如果您直接链接到此,请从头阅读本节以了解更多信息。

特定平台CSS

Anki定义某些允许为不同平台而定义样式的特殊CSS类。 下面的例子演示了怎样根据复习的设备改变字体:

.win .jp { font-family: "MS Mincho"; }
.mac .jp { font-family: "Hiragino Mincho Pro"; }
.linux .jp { font-family: "Kochi Mincho"; }
.mobile .jp { font-family: "Hiragino Mincho ProN"; }

添加到模板

<div class=jp>{{Field}}</div>

对于不同iOS设备可以使用 .iphone.ipad来区分。

当使用AnkiWeb,在浏览器中还可以使用如.gecko.opera.ie 的属性选择特定的浏览器。 前往 http://rafael.adm.br/css_browser_selector/ 可察看选项的完整清单。

字体安装

如果在工作地点或学校等不允许安装新字体的电脑上使用Anki时, 或者在移动设备上使用Anki时, 可以直接把字体添加到Anki。

要向Anki添加,字体必须为全真字体(TrueType字体)。 全真字体后缀名为.ttf,比如"Arial.ttf"。 一旦找到全真字体,需要把它添加到媒体文件夹:

  1. 重命名文件,在开头添加下划线, 变成如“_arial.ttf”。添加下划线可以提示Anki该文件将用于模板, 就不会在检查未使用的媒体时被删除。

  2. 在计算机文件浏览器,进入“我的文档”文件夹, 找到里面的Anki文件夹,再找到名为“用户1”的文件夹 (如果重命名或添加过用户配置文件,则为自定义用户配置名)。

  3. 在此文件夹中,应该会找到名为collection.media的文件夹。 将重命名后的文件拖入该文件夹。

之后,需要更新模板:

  1. 点击主窗口顶部的 添加 按钮, 然后选择左上角的按钮选择需要修改的笔记类型。

  2. 点击 卡片...按钮。

  3. 在样式区的底部,添加下面的文本 (在最后一个"}"字符后), 将"_arial.ttf"替换为复制到媒体文件夹的文件的名称:

@font-face { font-family: myfont; src: url('_arial.ttf'); }
注意
只修改"arial"部分而不是"myfont"部分。

此后,可以修改整个卡片的字体, 或用于单个字段。要改变整个卡片的字体, 只需要定位到.card部分的font-family:行,并且改变字体到"myfont". 仅改变某些字段的字体,请察看上面 字段样式 的说明。

注意
请确保文件名准确匹配。 如果文件叫arial.TTF,而在模板中写为arial.ttf,则不会生效。

Mac中的字体

当前嵌入式字体无法用于OS X中。 自定义字体仍然可以使用,但需要全系统安装。

要在系统中安装字体,请察看http://support.apple.com/kb/HT2435?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US

可以设定Anki在Mac电脑上使用系统字体, 其他地方使用嵌入字体。

在正面或背面模板, 使用下面的代码把需要设定样式的字段括起来,并把“字段名”替换为在用的字段名称。

vl <span class="mystyle">{{字段名}}</span>

在样式区,除了上面描述的行的字体, 再添加下面的代码:

.mystyle { font-family: myfont; }
.mac .mystyle { font-family: Helvetica; }

用安装在系统中的字体名称替换“Helvetica”。 保持“myfont”不变,因为它引用了嵌入的字体。

Javascript

因为Anki卡片就像网页, 所以可以通过在模板中内联脚本标签在卡片中嵌入Javascript。 因为是高级特性,无法保证任何特定Javascript有效, 在无法工作时也不能提供任何协助。 如有疑问,最好避免。

每个Anki客户端可能不同地实现卡片的显示, 所以需要通过各平台来测试其运行。 许多客户端通过保持一个长期运行的网页并动态更新其部分作为对卡片的检验, 所以Javascript需要更新文档的区段而不是像document.write函数那样运行。

像window.alert的功能也是不可用的。 Anki会将javascript错误写入终端,所以如果运行在Mac或Windows电脑上, 需要手动捕捉错误并写入文档以便察看。 由于没有可用的调试器, 所以为了找出问题, 需要中断代码直到发现引起问题的部分。

(译注:CSS类允许使用UTF-8字符,即可支持UTF-8中文,本章中部分CSS类为便于阅读译为中文,但网上文章不建议使用中文命名CSS类。 )

配置文件与偏好设置

配置文件

当多人需要在一台电脑上使用Anki时, 可以为每个用户设置一个单独的配置文件。 每个用户的配置文件包含自己的记忆库(牌组)集合和程序设置。 通过进入文件菜单并选择“切换本地帐户”可设置个人用户配置。

注意
配置文件的目的是能为不同用户所使用, 而每个AnkiWeb账户在同步时则只能保留一个配置文件。 如果只为分割自己的内容,应该使用单独的记忆库(牌组)而不是使用单独的配置文件, 除非是为了进行试验而修改设定、 同时又不想将这些改变同步到其他设备。

进入Anki的偏好设置窗口(工具→首选项...菜单项或按Ctrl+p可调出--译注)可为自己的配置文件指定密码。 但用户的记忆库(牌组)集合并未加密, 其他人如果找到硬盘上的文件仍然可以篡改这些文件。 密码保护的主要目的是为了在班级环境中提高学生篡改其他人的记忆库(牌组)和设置的难度。

偏好设置

在Windows/Linux下的工具菜单或Mac下的Anki菜单可进入偏好设置。 如果有多个配置文件, 任何改变只会应用于当前配置文件。

基础(标签页)

剥离HTML(粘贴文字时去除HTML标签) 选项告诉Anki粘贴文字到编辑器时是否去除格式。 默认情况下,Anki会去除粘贴文本的格式信息, 以便用户可以改用卡片模板中的代码对文本进行格式化。 如果用户更喜欢保留格式(这样就可以粘贴加粗的文本,以此类推), 可以取消此选项

Anki默认以JPG格式粘贴剪贴板上的图像,以节省磁盘空间。 可以使用 粘贴剪贴板图像为PNG(把剪贴板图像保存为PNG)选项以改粘贴为PNG图像。 PNG图像支持透明背景和无损, 但常会导致更大的文件体积。

第一个下拉列表框控制添加时笔记类型和记忆库(牌组)的交互关系。 默认的“添加时,默认为当前记忆库(牌组)”意味着Anki可保存最近使用的笔记类型到任何记忆库(牌组), 下次需要时可以重新选择记忆库(牌组) (此外,在任何地方选择 添加后会从当前选定记忆库(牌组)开始)。 另一个选项“根据笔记类型改变记忆库(牌组)” 则为各笔记类型保存最近使用的记忆库(牌组)(当选择 添加会打开添加窗口到最近使用的笔记类型)。 当用户为每个记忆库(牌组)总是使用单一的笔记类型时, 这样也许更加方便。

第二个下拉选择框控制新卡片何时出现: 与复习卡片混合、之前或之后出现。

下一天开始选项控制Anki何时开始显示下一天的卡片。 默认设置的凌晨4点保证了用户如果在午夜前后学习, 不会在一个学习周期看到相当于两天的量的卡片。 如果用户熬夜到很晚或起得非常早, 也许就需要调整该选项为相当于自己平常睡眠的时间。

提前学习的上限选项告诉Anki当记忆库(牌组)中除了正在学习的卡片外没有其他的可学习的内容时如何处理。 默认设置的20分钟告诉Anki在没有其他内容时应将在20分钟内要出现的卡片提前显示。 如果设置为0分钟, Anki会始终等待, 并显示“恭喜!你目前已经完成了这个记忆库”直到剩下的卡片进入设定的复习时间。

时间框是一种可以通过将一项长时间的活动(比如30分钟的学习周期)分割为小块时间来帮助用户集中精力的手段。 如果设定 时间框时间限制 为非零时间, Anki会周期性地显示在规定时间内用户努力学习了多少张卡片。

记忆库(牌组)选项

在主窗口中选择一个记忆库(牌组), 然后点击屏幕底部的 选项按钮可进入记忆库(牌组)选项(Anki2.0.31为点击记忆库右侧的齿轮图标,然后在出现的菜单中选择选项--译注)

Anki允许不同记忆库(牌组)共享选项设置, 可以方便地迅速就可以为多个记忆库(牌组)更新设置。 为此,选项被集合为 选项组。默认情况,所有新创建的记忆库(牌组)都使用相同的选项组, 而从早期版本的Anki中导入的记忆库(牌组)则有单独的选项组。 如果想要仅改变一个记忆库(牌组)的设置, 点击(选项窗口)右上角的齿轮图标可以添加一个新的选项组。

请只去修改那些您已经完全理解的选项, 因为不当的调整可能导致Anki的作用降低效率。

注意
记忆库(牌组)选项没有追溯性。例如,改变控制卡片回想失败后的延迟的选项时, 在改变选项之前回想失败的卡片会仍然使用原先的延后信息, 而不是修改后的。

New Cards

步伐(步长) 选项控制重复学习次数和两次学习间的间隔。 请查看 学习 章节简要了解学习步伐如何运行。

如果需要,超过一天(1440分钟)的学习步伐也是支持的, 可以在新卡片成为复习卡片前定义如10分钟、一天、三天然后最终为7天的复习进度。

注意
如果已经完成当前学习内容,Anki默认会提前20分钟显示要学的卡片。 提前学习的时间量可在 首选项... 设置。 需要留意的是,在这种情况下,记忆库(牌组)界面和学习界面中到期卡片的计数会有所不同。 记忆库(牌组)界面不会将计划外的卡片算入, 但学习界面中正相反(计入的为“正在进行的课程”--译注)。如此计算是为了方便用户分辨那些记忆库(牌组)更需要引起重视。
 
注意
Anki对短步长和跨越一天的步长的处理方式是不同的。 短步长的卡片会在比如复习时比其他正在等待的卡片优先在延迟时间结束后立即显示。 这样是为了尽可能快的复习用户要求的卡片。 相比而言, 跨越一天的卡片则是按每天基础安排进度。 当第二天进行学习时, 日常学习的卡片不会首先显示,因为那会使开始的复习周期非常困难。 相反,在复习完成后卡片会显示。 它们会因为内部处理的方式被计入复习而不是学习。

顺序 选项控制Anki按顺序还是随机向记忆库(牌组)添加新卡片。 改变这个选项,Anki会重排使用当前的选项组的记忆库(牌组)。 关于随机顺序模式的警告: 当复习许多新卡片然后又添加其他新卡片, 新添加的材料比之前剩余的卡片出现的概率更高。 要纠正这一点,可以改为顺序模式然后再恢复设置可强制重排。

Note
When you select random order, Anki will randomize your notes, keeping the cards of a given note close together. The cards of a given note are shown in the order their card types appear in, so that siblings are introduced consistently - otherwise you could end up in a state where some notes had all their cards introduced and other notes had only one or two. Please see the "bury related" option below for more info.

每天的新卡片数量(新卡片/天)告诉Anki每天打开程序时用户希望引入多少张新卡片。 未运行程序的日子不会导致卡片累积。 该限额会应用于当前牌组和子牌组。这意味着如果“法语”牌组的日限额为20张卡片而 “法语::第一课”和“法语::第二课”日限额都是15张卡片, 那么第一课会显示15张卡片而第二课只显示5张卡片。

注意
学习新卡片会临时增加每天需要复习的数量, 因为在学习间隔能够明显延长之前, 新学习的材料需要重复一定次数。 如果用户每天稳定地学习20张新卡片, 可以粗略地预期到的是,每天的复习量约为200张卡片。 每天引入较少的新卡片可以降低复习的需求量,或者可以在复习负担降低前关闭显示新卡片。 不止一名Anki用户在最初使用该程序的几天里兴奋地学习了上百张新卡片后, 然后就被复习量所渐渐压垮。

毕业间隔 是指在没有剩余学习步伐的卡片中回答一般后到卡片再次出现的时间间隔。

简单间隔 是指在学习卡片时回答简单后到卡片再次在复习模式中首次出现的时间间隔。

开始简化 控制卡片开始出现时的难度。 它设置于卡片初次生成。默认为250%, 这意味着,当用户完成卡片学习时回答“一般”, 之后的复习间隔按大约2.5倍增长 (例如最近的复习间隔为10天,下次复习间隔为25天)。Based upon how you 根据用户在后来的复习中对卡片知识的回答,难度可能会比初始时降低或增加。

关闭隐藏相关...(搁置相关新卡片到隔日)选项会阻止Anki隐藏相关卡片, 而Anki会尽量避免在同一个学习周期中显示相关卡片。 而启用该选项,每天的新卡片数量(新卡片/天)选项需要设置得足够大以能够包含多条笔记的卡片。

Reviews

最大复习数/天选项允许设置每天显示的复习卡片的数量上限。 当达到数量限制时,即使有等待复习的卡片,Anki也不会再显示任何复习卡片。 如果用户持续学习, 该设置可以帮助用户缓和到期卡片数量的偶然性达到高峰, 以免发生一周不用后回到Anki中被吓一大跳的情况。 当复习卡片因此选项而被隐藏时, 在(学习结束后的)祝贺页面中会出现一条如果有余力可建议考虑调高上限的提示。

简单奖励选项允许设置在一张卡片回答 一般简单后的复习间隔的差额。例如,默认的值130%, 回答简单后的复习间隔是回答一般的1.3倍。

间隔修饰符选项允许对Anki生成的复习间隔应用一个乘数因子。 默认的100%对其无影响; 例如设置为80%,复习间隔会缩短到一般情况下的80% (这样10天的间隔会变成8天)。 因此可以使用乘数调整Anki给出的卡片出现频率, 保持学习时间或相反。

一般的用户应该会发现对于中等难度的材料, 在复习时能够记起90%的熟练卡片。 通过打开一个记忆库(牌组)的图表/统计并查看回答按钮统计表,可以了解自己的表现, 图表中的最右侧的正确率代表滞留的熟练卡片。 如果用户学习的时间不长, 可能还没有熟练卡片。 因为新卡片和不熟悉卡片相当不同, 建议直到有了合理的成熟复习卡片数量后再得出保留率的结论。

SuperMemo网站建议使用适当的乘数以得到期望的卡片保留率。 他们总结公式如下:

log(期望保留%) / log(当前保留%)

例如当前保留率为85%,然后要求提高到90%。 可以算出乘数为:

log(90%) / log(85%) = 0.65

也可以使用谷歌搜索来计算该数值(国内还是用这个计算吧--译注)

输入计算结果65%到间隔修饰符选项中, 就会发现停留的时间更接近期望。

但需要另外注意的是学习次数和滞留时间的平衡并非线性的: 可以发现提高滞留率5个百分点, 学习的频率就提高35%。 如果学习的材料非常重要,也许值得付出额外的努力—— 这是需要用户自行决定。 如果仅仅担心会遗忘太多东西, 也许会发现在初始学习阶段投入更多时间或使用记忆方法可以事半功倍。

最后需要注意的是Anki强制新间隔以1天为初始并逐渐延长, 以防用户复习时总是要面对同样的间隔下反复出现的内容。 如果目标是每天复习一次,重复数天, 可以设置更多的学习模式步伐而不是调整乘数。

最大间隔选项允许给Anki再次显示卡片的等待时间设置一个上限。 默认为100年;如果用户希望为更高的滞留时间增加额外学习时间, 可以降低为一个较小的数字。

关闭隐藏相关(搁置相关复习到隔日)选项会阻止Anki隐藏同源卡片,而不是Anki试图避免在同一个学习周期内直接一个接一个地显示相关卡片。

注意
Review cards are always shown in random order. If you wish to see them in a different order, you can use a filtered deck. More specifically, Anki randomizes reviews by grabbing batches of 50 cards in the order that they exist in the database, randomizing each batch, then putting them together. This means that there is a slight bias towards older cards being shown first, but it prevents individual cards from showing up in a predictable order.

Lapses

When you forget a review card, it is said to have lapsed. The default behaviour for lapsed reviews is to reset the interval to 1 (ie, make it due tomorrow), and put it in the learning queue for a refresher in 10 minutes. This behaviour can be customized with the options listed below.

If you leave the steps blank, Anki will not place the card back in the learning queue, and it will be rescheduled as a review with its new interval determined by the settings below.

Note
The new interval is determined when you answer "Again" to a review card, not when the card finishes its relearning steps. For this reason, the "Good" and "Easy" buttons during relearing do not alter the interval again - they only control which step you are on. If there is only a single step (the default), the "Easy" button will be hidden, since it would accomplish the same thing as the "Good" button. If you have 2 or more steps, "Easy" is not hidden, to allow you to graduate cards from the queue before all of their steps are finished.

New interval controls how much Anki should reduce the previous interval by. If the card had a 100 day interval, the default of 0% would reduce the interval to 0 (but see the next option). If you set this option to 20%, the card would have its interval reduced to 20 days instead.

Minimum interval allows you to apply a minimum limit to the above option. The default setting says that lapses should be reviewed one day later. The interval must be 1 day or more.

The leech options control the way Anki handles leeches. Please see the leech section for more information.

General

Anki monitors how long it takes you to answer each question so that it can show you how long was spent studying each day. The time taken does not influence scheduling. If you take longer than 60 seconds, Anki assumes you have walked away from your computer or have been distracted, and limits the recorded time to 60 seconds, so that you don’t end up with inaccurate statistics. The ignore answer times… option allows you to adjust the cutoff threshold. The minimum cutoff is 30 seconds.

If show answer timer is checked, Anki will display the current time taken for each card in the study area.

By default, Anki automatically plays audio on the front and back of cards. If you uncheck automatically play audio, Anki will not play audio until you click the replay audio button.

The when answer shown, replay both question and answer audio option controls what happens when you choose to replay audio while the answer is shown. Please note that it does not control what happens when you show the answer; for that please see this section.

Description

This section allows you to edit the deck description, which is shown in the study overview. The description is automatically set when downloading shared decks. You can delete all the text in the description if you no longer want to see it in the study overview area.

You can also use HTML in the description—anything that works on a note should be valid.

AnkiWeb and Synchronization

AnkiWeb is a service that allows you to keep your collection synchronized across multiple devices, and to study online. Please sign up for a free account before following the steps below.

Setup

To start syncing your collection across devices, click the sync button (the top right one on the main screen), or press y on your keyboard. You’ll be prompted for your AnkiWeb ID and password, which you created in the signup process.

When you synchronize your collection for the first time, Anki will not be able to merge the content stored on AnkiWeb and the content stored on your computer, so you’ll need to choose which side you’d like to keep. Once the initial setup is completed however, Anki will be able to merge changes from multiple locations with a few exceptions.

Note
If you have multiple people using Anki on one machine and have created a profile for each user, each user will need to create their own AnkiWeb account to sync with. If you attempt to synchronize multiple profiles with a single AnkiWeb account, you will lose data.

Automatic Syncing

Once syncing is enabled, Anki will automatically sync each time your collection is closed or opened. If you would prefer to synchronize manually, you can disable automatic syncing in Anki’s preferences.

Media

Anki will synchronize any sounds and images used by your notes. It will notice when media has been added or removed from your media folder, but will not notice if you have edited some existing files without adding or removing any. To get your edits noticed, you need to add or remove a file as well.

Note
If you’re running Anki off a USB flash drive, you should use an NTFS file system, as Anki may not be able to detect media changes on a FAT32 filesystem.

Conflicts

Reviews and note edits can be merged, so if you review or edit on two different devices before syncing, Anki will preserve your changes from both locations. If the same card has been reviewed in two different locations, both reviews will be marked in the revision history, and the card will be kept in the state it was when it was most recently answered.

There are certain changes that Anki is unable to merge. These mainly relate to the format of notes: things like adding a new field, or removing a card template. When you perform an operation that can’t be merged, Anki will warn you, and give you the option of aborting the operation. If you choose to continue, you’ll be asked to choose whether to keep the local copy or the copy on AnkiWeb when your collection is next synchronized.

If you wish to force a full upload or download (for example, because you accidentally deleted a deck on one side and want to restore the deck rather than having its deletion synchronized), you can check the "On next sync, force changes in one direction" box in Tools>Preferences>Network, then sync as usual. (You’ll be given the option to choose which side you want to use.)

Proxies

Anki syncs over secure HTTP connections. If you need a proxy to access the internet, Anki should automatically pick up your system proxy settings if you’re on Windows or OS X, and will honour the HTTP_PROXY environment variable if you’re on another platform.

Please note that advanced proxy setup via .pac or .wpad files is not supported in Anki.

To override the system proxy settings on Windows or OS X, define a HTTP_PROXY environmental variable that points to the proxy server. It will look like:

http://user:pass@proxy.company.com:8080

If your username or password contains an @ (eg user@workdomain.com), you need to change it to %40, like so:

http://user%40workdomain.com:pass@proxy.company.com:8080

To set environmental variables on Windows, please see http://www.itechtalk.com/thread3595.html

Note
The toolkit Anki is built on is unfortunately not currently able to pick up your proxy username and password from your system settings. This means that if you use a proxy that requires authentication, syncing will fail. In this case, you will need to use an environmental variable that defines your proxy details as described above, or use a personal proxy server that you route traffic through, which in turn connects to the upstream proxy that requires authentication.

Browser

The browser (which has nothing to do with web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox) allows you to search through your cards and notes and edit them. It is opened by clicking on Browse in the main window, or by pressing b on your keyboard. It is comprised of three sections: the sidebar on the left, the card list on the top right, and the current note on the bottom right. By positioning the mouse between two sections, it is possible to click and drag to expand one section and shrink another.

Sidebar

The sidebar on the left allows quick access to common search terms. Various search terms as described below are listed, along with all deck names and tag names. Clicking on an item will search for it.

You can hold down ctrl (command on a Mac) and click in order to append the clicked item to the current search with an AND condition, instead of starting a new search. If you wanted to show learning cards that were also in the German deck for instance, you could click on "Learning", then ctrl+click on "German".

You can hold down shift to create an OR search instead of an AND (for example, you could click one deck, then shift-click another to show cards from either of the decks in the same view).

You can hold down alt (option on a Mac) in order to reverse the search (prepend a -) (for instance, to show all cards in a current deck that do not have a certain tag).

To remove tags that are not used by any notes, use Tools>Check Database from the main window.

Searching

Above the card list is a search box. You can type in various things there to search for cards.

Simple searches

When you type some text into the search box, Anki finds matching notes and displays their cards. Anki searches in all fields of the notes, but does not search for tags (see later in this section for how to search for tags). Some examples:

dog

search for "dog" - will match words like "doggy" and "underdog" too

dog cat

finds notes with both "dog" and "cat", such as "a dog and cat"

dog or cat

finds notes with either "dog" or "cat"

dog (cat or mouse)

finds notes with dog and cat, or dog and mouse

-cat

finds notes without the word "cat".

-cat -mouse

finds notes with neither "cat" nor "mouse".

-(cat or mouse)

same as the above.

"a dog"

finds notes with the exact phrase "a dog" on them

-"a dog"

finds notes without the exact phrase "a dog"

d_g

finds notes with d, <a letter>, g, like dog, dig, dug, and so on.

d*g

finds notes with d, <zero or more letters>, g, like dg, dog, dung, etc.

Things to note from the above:

  • Search terms are separated by spaces.

  • When multiple search terms are provided, Anki looks for notes that match all of the terms.

  • You can use "or" if you only need one of the terms to match.

  • You can prepend a minus sign to a term to find notes that don’t match.

  • If you want to search for something including a space or parenthesis, enclose it in quotes.

  • You can group search terms by placing them in parentheses, as in the dog (cat or mouse) example. This becomes important when combining OR and AND searches — in the example, with the parentheses, it matches either dog cat or dog mouse, whereas without them it would match either dog and cat or mouse.

  • Anki is only able to search within formatting in the sort field you’ve configured. For example, if you add "example" to one of your fields, this will not be matched when searching for "example" unless that field is the sort field.

Limiting to a field

You can also ask Anki to match only if a particular field contains some text. Unlike the searches above, searching on fields requires an exact match by default.

front:dog

find notes with a Front field of exactly "dog". A field that says "a dog" will not match.

front:*dog*

find notes with Front field containing dog somewhere

front:

find notes that have an empty Front field

-front:

find notes that have a non-empty Front field

front:*

find notes that have a Front field, empty or not

Tags, decks, cards and notes

tag:animal

find notes with the tag "animal"

tag:none

find notes with no tags

tag:ani*

find notes with tags starting with ani

deck:french

find cards in a French deck, or subdecks like French::Vocab

deck:french -deck:french::*

find cards in French, but not subdecks

deck:"french vocab"

searching when a deck has a space

"deck:french vocab"

also ok

deck:filtered

filtered decks only

-deck:filtered

normal decks only

card:forward

search for Forward cards

card:1

search for cards by template number - eg, to find the second cloze deletion for a note, you’d use card:2

note:basic

search for cards with a Basic note type

Card types

is:due

review cards and learning cards waiting to be studied

is:new

new cards

is:learn

cards in learning

is:review

reviews (both due and not due) and lapsed cards

is:suspended

cards that have been manually suspended

is:buried

cards that have been buried, either siblings or manually

Cards that have lapsed fall into several of these categories, so it may be useful to combine them to get more precise results:

is:learn is:review

cards that have lapsed and are awaiting relearning

-is:learn is:review

review cards, not including lapsed cards

is:learn -is:review

cards that are in learning for the first time

Card properties

prop:ivl>=10

cards with interval of 10 days or more

prop:due=1

cards due tomorrow

prop:due=-1

cards due yesterday that haven’t been answered yet

prop:due>-1 prop:due<1

cards due between yesterday and tomorrow

prop:reps<10

cards that have been answered less than 10 times

prop:lapses>3

cards that have moved into relearning more than 3 times

prop:ease!=2.5

cards easier or harder than default

Note that due only matches review cards and learning cards with an interval of a day or more: cards in learning with small intervals like 10 minutes are not included.

Recently added

added:1

cards added today

added:7

cards added in last week

The check is made against card creation time rather than note creation time, so cards that were generated within the time frame will be included even if their notes were added a long time ago.

Recently answered

rated:1

cards answered today

rated:1:2

cards answered Hard (2) today

rated:7:1

cards answered Again (1) over the last 7 days

rated:31:4

cards answered Easy (4) in the last month

For speed, rating searches are limited to 31 days.

Note and card IDs

nid:1000000000000

all cards of the note with given note ID

cid:1000000000000

the card with given card ID

Note and card IDs can be found in the card info dialog in the browser. These searches may also be helpful when doing add-on development or otherwise working closely with the database.

Card List

The card list displays cards that match the current search.

The columns are configurable: right click on one (or ctrl+click on a Mac) to choose which columns you’d like to see. You can drag columns to reorder them. Clicking on a column will sort by that column; click again to reverse the sort order. Not all columns can be sorted on.

Note
The due column behaves differently for different types of cards. New cards show a number rather than a due date, which indicates the order the new cards will be presented in. Cards in (re)learning and reviews will both show a due date, but when sorting they are first grouped by type and then sorted by date.
Note
The "edited" and "changed" columns sound the same but track different things. "Edited" tracks the last time changes were made to the note (e.g., when the content of a field was edited), while "changed" tracks the last time changes were made to the card (e.g., when you reviewed the card and the review history and interval were updated).

When you click on a card, its note will be shown in the bottom section. If you drag the mouse or hold ctrl or command to select multiple cards, the editor will be temporarily hidden. Various operations (such as changing the deck) can operate on multiple cards at once.

The background colour will change depending on the card. Marked cards are a shade of purple. Suspended cards are a shade of yellow. For more information about marked and suspended cards, please see editing and more.

One of the available columns is called the sort field. Anki allows you to choose one field from each type of note to be used for sorting. You can change the sort field by clicking on "Fields…" in the current note section.

The question and answer columns display what you’d see on the question and answer while reviewing, except the answer column will strip the question part for clarity. You can also choose a custom format in the card type editor instead of showing what would be seen during review.

Current Note

The bottom right area displays the currently selected card’s note. For more information about cards and notes, please see the basics. For more information on formatting buttons, please see editing.

You can see a preview of what the currently selected card would look like when reviewing by clicking the "preview" button next to the search box. Note that this will not display any type answer fields on your cards, which makes it easier to preview cards quickly.

Toolbar

Up the top of the browser window is the toolbar.

Info shows various information about the currently selected card, including its review history. For more information, see the statistics section.

Mark and Suspend are documented in editing and more.

Change Deck allows you to move cards to a different deck. Cards can be placed in different decks, so if you want to move all cards in a note, you should first use Edit > Select Notes.

Add Tags and Remove Tags allow you to add or remove tags from notes in bulk. To remove unused tags from the list on the left, use Tools>Check Database from the main window.

Delete removes the selected card(s) and their notes. It is not possible to remove individual cards, as individual cards are controlled by the templates.

Find and Replace

This option (Edit>Find and Replace) allows you to replace text in the cards you have selected. The regular expression option allows you to perform complex replacements. For example, given the following text on a card:

<img src="pic.jpg">

Searching for:

<img src="(.+)">

And replacing with the regexp:

\1

Will change the card to:

pic.jpg

A full discussion on regular expressions is outside the scope of this document. There are a number of tutorials available on the web. Please see http://docs.python.org/library/re.html for the particular format Anki uses.

Finding Duplicates

You can use the Edit>Find Duplicates option to search for notes that have the same content. When you open the window, Anki will look at all of your note types and present a list of all possible fields. If you want to look for duplicates in the "Back" field, you’d select it from the list and then click "Search".

Unlike the check that happens when you add cards manually, the duplicate finding feature is not limited to a single note type. This means that by default, it will search in all note types that have the field you provided.

The optional limit text box allows you to narrow down where Anki will look for duplicates. If you only want to search for duplicates in the "French Vocab" and "French Verbs" note types, you would enter:

note:'french vocab' or note:'french verbs'

Or you might want to look only for duplicates in a particular deck, so you could use:

deck:'myDeck'

The search syntax is the same as used when searching in the browser. Please see the searching section for more information.

You can click one of the links in the search results list to display the duplicate notes in that set. If the search brings up a large number of duplicates, you may wish to instead click the Tag Duplicates button, which will tag all matching notes with "duplicate." You can then search for this tag in the browser and handle them all from the same screen.

Other Menu Items

Some other items in the Edit menu:

Reschedule allows you to move cards to the end of the new card queue, or reschedule them as a review card on a given date. The second option is useful if you have imported already-learnt material, and you want to start it off with higher initial intervals. For example, choosing 60 and 90 will give all the imported cards an initial interval of 2 to 3 months.

The card’s revision history is not cleared when rescheduling: rescheduling changes the current state of a card, but not its history. If you want to hide the history, you will need to export your notes as a text file, delete the notes, and then import the text file again, creating new notes.

Reposition allows you to change the order new cards will appear in. You can find out the existing positions by enabling the due column, as described in the card list section above. If you run the reposition command when multiple cards are selected, it will apply increasing numbers to each card in turn. By default the number increases by one for each card, but this can be adjusted by changing the "step" setting. The Shift position of existing cards option allows you to insert cards between currently existing ones, pushing the currently existing ones apart. For instance, if you have five cards and you want to move 3, 4, and 5 between 1 and 2, selecting this setting would cause the cards to end up in the order 1, 3, 4, 5, 2. By contrast, if you turn this option off, 2 and 3 will get the same position number (and it will thus be random which one comes up first).

Change Note Type allows you to convert the selected notes from one type to another. For example, imagine you have a Russian note type and a Computer note type, and you accidentally added some computer-related text into a Russian note. You can use this option to fix that mistake. The scheduling of cards is not affected.

Select Notes takes the currently selected cards, finds their notes, and then selects all cards of those notes. If your notes have only one card, this does nothing.

The Go menu exists to provide keyboard shortcuts to jump to various parts of the browser, and to go up and down the card list.

Filtered Decks & Cramming

When you study a regular deck in Anki, only a limited number of cards are shown: the cards Anki thinks you’re about to forget, and a daily limit of new cards. This is generally useful, as it ensures you don’t spend more time studying than necessary. But sometimes it can be useful to step outside of these normal limits, such as when you need to revise for a test, focus on particular material, and so on. To make this possible, Anki provides a different type of deck called a filtered deck.

Filtered decks offer a lot of possibilities. They can be used for previewing cards, cramming cards before a test, studying particular tags, catching up on a backlog with a particular sort order, reviewing ahead of schedule, going over the day’s failed cards, and more.

Custom Study

The easiest way to create a filtered deck is with the Custom Study button, which appears at the bottom of the screen when you click on a deck. It offers some convenient presets for common tasks like reviewing the cards you’ve failed that day. It will create a filtered deck called "Custom Study Session" and automatically open it for you.

If an existing "Custom Study Session" deck exists, it will be emptied before a new one is created. If you wish to keep a custom study deck, you can rename it from the deck list.

Here is a summary of each of the options:

Increase today’s new card limit

Add more new cards to the deck you are currently studying. Note that unlike other options, this does not create a new filtered deck, it modifies the existing deck.

Increase today’s review card limit

If not all reviews due today were shown due to the daily review limit, this option allows you to show more of them. Like with the new cards option, this modifies the existing deck.

Review forgotten cards

Show all cards that you’ve answered Again (1) to within a number of days you specify.

Review ahead

Show cards that will be due in the near future (a number of days you specify). This is useful for working through some of your older cards before a vacation, but it will not help with cards you have learnt recently. Please see the reviewing ahead section below for more info.

Preview new cards

Show cards that you have recently added.

Study by card state or tag

Select a certain number of cards from the current deck to study. You can choose to select new cards only, due cards only, or all cards; after you click "Choose Tags", you can also limit the selected cards by tags. If you wish to see all the cards in the deck (for instance, to study before a big test), you can set the number of cards to more than the number of cards in the deck.

Home Decks

When a card is moved to a filtered deck, it retains a link to the deck it was in previously. That previous deck is said to be the card’s home deck.

Cards automatically return to their home deck after they are studied in the filtered deck. This can be after a single review, or after multiple reviews, depending on your settings.

It is also possible to move all cards back to their home decks at once:

  • The "Empty" button in the study overview moves all cards in the filtered deck back to their home deck, but does not delete the empty filtered deck. This can be useful if you want to fill it again later (using the Rebuild button).

  • Deleting a filtered deck does the same thing as "Empty" does, but also removes the emptied deck from the deck list. No cards are deleted when you delete a filtered deck.

Note
In the current implementation, if you empty or delete a filtered deck while cards are still in learning, they will be turned back into new cards.

Creating Manually

Advanced users can create filtered decks with arbitrary search strings, instead of relying on set presets. To create a filtered deck manually, choose Create Filtered Deck from the Tools menu.

When you click the Build button, Anki finds cards that match the settings you specified, and temporarily moves them from their existing decks into your new filtered deck for study.

If you wish to fetch cards again using the same filter options (for instance, if you want to study all cards with a particular tag every day), you can use the Rebuild button at the bottom of the deck’s overview screen.

The search area controls what cards Anki will gather. All of the searches possible in the browser are also possible for filtered decks, such as limiting to tags, finding cards forgotten a certain number of times, and so on. Please see the searching section of the manual for more information on the different possibilities.

The limit option controls how many cards will be gathered into the deck. The order you select controls both the order cards are gathered in, and the order they will be reviewed in. If you select "most lapses" and a limit of 20 for example, then Anki will show you only the 20 most lapsed cards.

For efficiency reasons, if your cram deck contains more than 1000 cards, only 1000 cards will be shown as due on the deck list and study screens.

Order

The "cards selected by" option controls the order that cards will appear in. If the maximum number of cards you select is lower than the number of cards that match the filter criteria, Anki will exclude the cards at the end of this sorted list first.

Oldest seen first

Display cards that you haven’t seen in reviews for the longest time first.

Random

Randomize the order of all cards that match the filter criteria (use no set order).

Increasing intervals

Display cards that have the smallest interval first.

Decreasing intervals

Display cards that have the largest interval first.

Most lapses

Display cards that you have failed the most times first.

Order added

Display cards that you added first (have the earliest creation date) first.

Order due

Display cards with the earliest due date first.

Latest seen first

Display cards that you’ve seen most recently in reviews first.

Relative overdueness

Display cards that are most overdue in relation to their current interval first (for instance, a card with a current interval of 5 days overdue by 2 days displays before a card with a current interval of 5 years overdue by a week). This is useful if you have a large backlog that may take some time to get through and want to review the cards you’re most in danger of forgetting first.

Steps & Returning

Please see the section on learning as a reminder of how steps work.

By default, Anki will use the steps of a card’s home deck. If a new card would normally be reviewed twice when being learnt, the same thing will happen when you study it in a filtered deck.

Cards return to their home deck when (re)learning is complete. Thus if you have 3 learning steps, a new card will return to its home deck upon three presses of "Good" or a single press of "Easy".

The custom steps option allows you to override the home deck’s steps and provide your own steps instead. The provided steps apply to both cards being learnt, lapsed reviews, and reviews ahead of time.

Counts

In a filtered deck, reviews that were already due are displayed as the review count as normal. Learning cards and non-due reviews are counted in the new card count, due to how the underlying implementation works.

Due Reviews

If the filtered deck includes cards that were due for review, they will be shown like they would have been in their original deck - they appear in the review card count at the bottom of the screen, and there are four choices for how well you remembered. Upon a correct answer, the card will be moved back to its home deck, and its next delay adjusted using the home deck’s settings. If you forget the card, it will be shown according to the relearning steps defined in the home deck.

Reviewing Ahead

If your search included cards that are not due, Anki will show the reviews ahead of time.

Anki uses a special algorithm for these reviews that takes into account how early you are reviewing. If the cards were almost due to be shown, they will be given a new delay similar to what they would have received if you had reviewed them on time. If the cards are reviewed soon after they were scheduled however, their new delay will be similar to their previous delay. This calculation works on a sliding scale.

Note
Because reviewing a card shortly after it is scheduled has little impact on scheduling (eg, a card due tomorrow with a one day interval will remain due tomorrow if reviewed early), the "review early" custom study setting is not appropriate for repeated use. If used to go through a week’s worth of cards before a trip, the mature cards will be rescheduled into the future and the new cards will remain at small intervals, because you don’t know them well enough for them to be rescheduled further. If you review early again the next day, all you’ll end up doing is going through those same new cards again, to little benefit.

Early reviews are included in the new card count rather than the review count, and will be shown according to the number of relearning steps defined in the home deck (unless you have provided custom steps). This means that if you have customized the number of relearning steps in the home deck, the non-due card may be shown more than once.

If you have multiple steps, Anki will only consider the first answer when deciding the next delay, and like relearning in normal decks, "Good" and "Easy" differ only in the step change and not the resulting delay.

Rescheduling

By default, Anki will return cards to their home decks with altered scheduling based on your performance in the filtered deck. If you disable the reschedule cards based on my answers option, Anki will return the cards in the same state they were in when they were moved into the filtered deck. This is useful for quickly flipping through material.

If you have disabled rescheduling, the "Good" and "Easy" buttons will display no time above them when pressing them would cause the card to return to its home deck with its original scheduling.

Please note that new cards are returned to the end of the new card queue, rather than the start of it.

Catching Up

Filtered decks can be useful for catching up when you’ve fallen behind in your reviews. One Anki user describes the way they use the filtered decks to catch up as follows:

I did this for a backlog of 800 cards with filtered subdecks. Worked very well for me.

  1. Just Due filter with: "is:due prop:due>-7"
  2. Over Due filter with: "is:due prop:due<=-7"

The Just Due deck will then contain cards that became due in the past week. That's the deck you should study every day as it gets the cards that become due regularly. With this you can study as if there wasn't any backlog.

The Over Due deck will contain your backlog, cards which you didn't study in time. You can study them the same way you would study new cards. They go back into the regular cards, so the number of overdue will never grow as long as you keep your Just Due deck in check.

How long it takes depends on how many overdue cards you study each day in addition to the ones that become due regularly. You can still motor through them when you feel like it - or you can do a specific number per day like you would for new cards. Up to you.

Leeches

Leeches are cards that you keep on forgetting. Because they require so many reviews, they take up a lot more of your time than other cards.

Anki can help you identify leeches. Each time a review card lapses, a counter is increased. When that counter reaches 8, the note is tagged as a leech, and the card is suspended. The threshold, and whether to suspend or not, can be adjusted in the deck options.

Anki will continue to issue leech warnings periodically for a difficult card. The warning interval is half the initial leech threshold. That is, if you have Anki configured to warn at 8 lapses, future warnings will happen every 4 lapses. (12, 16, etc)

Once a leech is found, there are a number of ways you can handle it.

Waiting

Some leeches are caused by interference. For example, an English learner may have recently learnt the words "disappoint" and "disappear". As they look similar, the learner may find themselves confusing the two when trying to answer. In these situations, it’s often productive to concentrate on just one idea. When that idea is firmly ingrained in your mind, you can then return to learning the other idea. So in these situations, you may want to leave one of the words suspended until you have learnt the other one well, and then unsuspend it in the browser.

Deleting

Another way to manage leeches is to delete them. Consider if the material you’re struggling with is important enough to make it worth your while. By selectively deleting difficult and obscure items, you can dedicate more time to learning other material, and studying becomes a lot more fun.

Editing

Another approach is to change the way the information is presented. Perhaps the cards you have created have too much information on them, or perhaps you’re trying to memorize something without fully understanding it. Sometimes spending some time changing the way the card is phrased can help. It’s also a good time to think about making a mnemonic to help you remember.

导入

Anki能够导入文本文件、由导出功能生成的记忆库包文件、 Mnemosyne 2.0.db文件以及SuperMemo.xml。要导入文件, 可以点击文件菜单下的“导入”选项。

导入文本文件

任何包含有被逗号、分号、制表符分隔开的字段的纯文本都可以被导入, 只要满足以下条件即可。

  • 文件须为纯文本文件(我的文件.txt),其它格式诸如 我的文件.xls、 我的文件.rtf、我的文件.doc 都必须先另存为纯文本文件。

  • 文件必须是UTF-8格式(详情参考下面).

  • Anki通过查看文件的第一行(无注释)来决定字段的数量。 文件的任何有不同数量的 字段的行都将被忽略。

  • 第一行还规定了分隔符:如果Anki在第一行发现了 ; , 它会将分号作为分隔符;如果发现了逗号,则会将逗号作为分隔符, 以此类推。

文本文件的字段能被映射为你的笔记的任何字段,包括 标签字段。在导入时,你可以选择文本文件的字段和 你的笔记的哪个字段对应。

当你导入一个文本文件时,你可以选择将卡片放在哪个记忆库里。 注意,如果你为一个或更多模板设置了记忆库覆盖选项, 卡片会置入那个记忆库而不是你选择的这个。

这是一个合法文件的例子:

foo bar; bar baz; baz quux
apple; banana; grape

有两种办法在字段包含新行:

将字段内容置于引号间来转义多行:

hello; "this is
a two line answer"
two; this is a one line one

使用HTML新行:

hello; this is<br>a two line answer
two; this is a one line one

你需要在导入对话框勾选“允许在字段中使用HTML” 来使得HTML新行有效。

注意
如果你使用多行完形填空,转义多行可能不能正常工作。 在这种情况下,请使用HTML新行。

你也可以在其它字段包含标签,并且在导入对话框选择它作为 标签域:

first field; second field; tags

这是个忽略第一行的合法文件的例子 (#):

# this is a comment and is ignored
foo bar; bar baz; baz quux
field1; field2; field3

电子表格与UTF-8

如果你的文件里有非拉丁符号,比如变音符号、日文等等, Anki希望文件以 UTF-8 编码 保存。最便捷的做法是 使用免费的LibreOffice电子表格软件而不是Excel来 编辑你的文件,因为它很容易支持UTF-8,并且也能正确地导出多行内容, 不像Excel。如果你执意使用Excel,请看 这 篇帖子 来获取更多信息。

用LibreOffice,为了将你的电子表格保存为Anki能读取的文件,选择 文件>另存为,然后在文件类型选择CSV。接受默认选项后, LibreOffice会将文件保存为能随后导入 Anki的格式。

HTML

Anki能处理从文本文件导入的作为HTML(被用作网页的语言)的文本。 这意味着带有加粗、斜体或其它格式的文本能被 导出为文本文件并再次导入。如果你希望包含HTML 格式,你可以在导入时勾选“允许在字段中使用HTML”、 当你尝试导入包含尖括号或其它HTML语法的内容时, 你可能希望将这项关闭。

如果你希望使用HTML来格式化你的文件,但是又希望包含尖括号, 你可以用另一种方式来写:

  • 对于 "<", 用 "&lt;"

  • 对于 ">", 用 "&gt;"

导入媒体

如果你希望从文本文件导入时包含音频、图片,那么将媒体 文件复制到 collection.media 文件夹不要放在媒体文件夹的子目录下, 否则某些功能将不能正常工作。

当你将文件复制好后, 像下面这样改变你的文本文件的一个字段。

<img src="myimage.jpg">

[sound:myaudio.mp3]

或者,你可以使用查找 & 替换功能来一次性更新所有字段。 如果每个字段包含像"myaudio"这样的文本,然后你希望让它播放一段音频, 你可以搜索(.*)然后替换为"[sound:\1.mp3]", 需要勾选 以正则表达式输入 选项。

注意
当导入包含了这些引用的文本文件时,你需要确保 勾选了“允许在字段中使用HTML”选项。

你可能尝试在模板中像这样做:

<img src="{{field name}}">

Anki不支持这种方式,有两个原因:检索已用媒体 很费时,因为每张卡片都需要渲染;而且这样的功能 对于使用共享记忆库的人来说不够明了。请使用查找 & 替换技术。

媒体批量导入

另一种一次性导入大量媒体的方式是使用 media import插件,这个插件 会自动为你选择的一个文件下的所有文件创建笔记,文件名作为正面(去掉文件后缀,因此,如果你有一个文件叫 apple.jpg,正面会叫 apple),并且图片或音频作为背面。如果 你想用别的方式布置媒体和文件名,你可以在卡片创建后 改变笔记类型

添加标签

如果你想为你导入的每一行添加 tag1tag2 标签,在文本文件的 第一行添加如下内容:

tags:tag1 tag2

重复与更新

当导入文本文件时,Anki使用第一字段来判断笔记是否 唯一。默认情况下,如果你导入的文件的第一字段 在你的集合中已经存在同样第一字段的笔记并且 与你导入的笔记类型相同时,已存在的笔记的其它字段 会基于导入文件的内容进行更新。导入窗口有个下拉框 允许你改变这一行为,你可以完全忽略重复, 或者将它们导入为新笔记而不更新已有的。

注意
查找重复是针对你的 整个集合,而不只是当前记忆库。 如果当Anki提示笔记没有被改变而你又 希望它们被导入,请检查笔记是否在你集合的某个地方 已经存在。

如果你选择更新,并且你导入的笔记的旧版本 已经在你的集合中,它们会被更新并置于它们当前的记忆库中, 而不是被移动到你在导入对话框设置的记忆库 里。

想了解更多有关.apkg文件重复处理的信息,请参阅 下面的 记忆库包 部分。

Exporting

Exporting allows you to save part of your collection as a text file or packaged Anki deck. To export, click the File menu and choose Export.

Exporting Text

If you choose "Notes in Plain Text", Anki will write the contents of the notes into a text file. Each field is separated by a tab. If you edit the resulting file and don’t modify the first field, you can later import that file back into Anki and Anki will update your notes based on your edits, provided you import back into the same note type.

If you find yourself needing to edit the first field as well, you’ll need to change the format of your note type so that the first field is an ID number rather than actual text. (You can install the "Add note id" plugin to make this easier.)

In order for formatting to be preserved when you import text back in, the text is exported with all the HTML formatting embedded in it.

Exporting Packaged Decks

A packaged deck consists of cards, notes, note types and any sounds or images bundled up into a file ending with .apkg. You can use packaged decks to transfer cards between people, or for backing up parts of your collection. A packaged deck is compressed, so it will be smaller than the sum of the files in your profile folder.

There are two different kinds of packaged decks.

Collection Package

When you export all decks with scheduling included, this is called a collection package. Anki will copy your entire collection into a file called "collection.apkg", and place it on your desktop. A collection package is used to back up your collection or to synchronize to AnkiMobile via iTunes.

When this file is later imported, Anki will delete all the current cards in the collection, and replace the collection with the items in the collection.apkg file. This is useful for copying your collection back and forth between devices.

Note
Existing media in your collection is not deleted when you import a collection.apkg. To delete unused media, use Tools>Check Media.
Note
Anki’s automatic backups are also collection packages. Simply double click on one to restore your collection to that backup.

Deck Package

Deck packages contain a single deck (and any child decks it may have). They have a filename ending with .apkg, but a filename other than collection.apkg. When you import a deck package, Anki will add the contents into your collection, rather than overwriting your collection.

If some notes in the deck package have previously been imported, Anki will keep the version with the most recent modification time. So if you download an updated deck, the edits that have been made in the updated version will be made in your collection as well, but if you re-import an unchanged deck after making edits in your collection, the changes in your collection will be kept.

If you choose not to include scheduling information, Anki will assume that you are sharing the deck with other people, and will remove marked and leech tags so that they will have a clean copy of it.

Managing Files and Your Collection

Checking Your Collection

It’s a good idea to occasionally check your collection file for problems. You can do this via the Tools>Check Database menu item. Checking the database ensures the file is not corrupted, rebuilds some internal structures, and optimizes the file.

When you check the database, your tag list is also rebuilt. When you delete individual decks or cards, Anki does not update the list of used tags, as it’s inefficient to do so. If you want to clear old tags out from the list that are no longer in use, checking your database is the way to do it.

Please note that Anki will automatically optimize your collection once every 2 weeks. This optimization ensures the collection performs well, but it does not check for errors or rebuild the tag list when automatically optimizing.

File Locations

On Windows and OSX, Anki stores all of its files in an Anki folder, located in your Documents folder. On other operating systems, your files are stored in ~/Documents/Anki by default.

Within the Anki folder, the program-level and profile-level preferences are stored in a file called prefs.db.

There is also a separate folder for each profile. The folder contains:

  • Your notes, decks, cards and so on in a file called collection.anki2

  • Your audio and images in a collection.media folder

  • A backups folder

  • Some system files

Warning
You should never copy or move your collection while Anki is open. Doing so could cause your collection to become corrupted. Please don’t move or modify the other files in the folder either.
Note
On Unix systems, Anki deliberately uses ~/Documents/Anki rather than a hidden folder. The bulk of the data stored in that folder is important user data rather than easily restored preferences, and it would be a disaster if a user lost it because they overlooked it when backing up files. There are also more and more Linux users who are not familiar with hidden folders. If you’re an advanced user, you can specify a custom folder with a command line argument, described in the next section.

Startup Options

If you have made a destructive change on one computer and have an undamaged copy on another computer, you may wish to start Anki without syncing in order to use the full sync option without first downloading the changes. Similarly, if you are experiencing problems with Anki, you might want to (or might be instructed to) disable add-ons temporarily to see if one might be causing the problem. You can do both of these things by holding down the Shift key while starting Anki.

It is possible to specify a custom folder location during startup. This is an advanced feature that is primarily intended to be used with portable installations, and we recommend you use the default location in most circumstances.

The syntax to specify an alternate folder is as follows:

anki -b /path/to/anki/folder
  • If you have multiple profiles, you can pass -p <name> to load a specific profile.

  • To change the interface language, use -l <iso 639-1 language code>, such as "-l ja" for Japanese.

If you always want to use a custom folder location, you can modify your shortcut to Anki. On Windows, right-click on the shortcut, choose Properties, select the Shortcut tab, and add "-b \path\to\data\folder" after the path to the program, which should leave you with something like

"C:\Program Files\Anki\anki.exe" -b "C:\AnkiDataFolder"

You can also use this technique with the -l option to easily use Anki in different languages.

Note
On Windows, you should use a backslash (\) not a forward slash (/).

On a Mac there is no easy way to alter the behaviour when clicking on the Anki icon, but it is possibile to start Anki with a custom base folder from a terminal:

open /Applications/Anki.app --args -b ~/myankifolder
Note
If you want to permanently change the interface language, delete Documents/Anki/prefs.db and the initial startup screen will be shown again. After doing so, you’ll need to add any profiles you were using again. As long as you use the same profile name as before, Anki will pick up the files from before.

DropBox and File Syncing

We do not recommend you sync your Anki folder directly with a third-party synchronization service, as it can lead to database corruption when files are synced while in use.

If you just want to synchronize your media, you can link external folders into services like DropBox. Please see http://www.dropboxwiki.com/tips-and-tricks/sync-other-folders for more info.

If you wish to keep your collection in sync as well, it is strongly recommended that you create a script that copies your files from your synced folder to a local folder, launches Anki, and then copies the files back when Anki is closed. This will ensure that the files are never synchronized while they are open.

Network Filesystems

We strongly recommend you have Anki store your files on a local hard disk, as network filesystems can lead to database corruption. If a network filesystem is your only option, regular use of Tools>Check Database to detect corruption is recommended.

Running from a Flash Drive

Anki can be installed on a flash drive and run as a portable application:

  • Copy the \Program Files\Anki folder to the flash drive, so you have a folder like G:\Anki.

  • Create a text file called G:\anki.bat with the following text:

\anki\anki.exe -b \ankidata

If you would like to prevent the black command prompt window from remaining open, you can instead use:

start /b \anki\anki.exe -b \ankidata
  • Double-clicking on anki.bat should start Anki with the user data stored in G:\ankidata.

Note
Media syncing with AnkiWeb may not work if your flash drive is formatted as FAT32. Please format the drive as NTFS to ensure media syncs correctly.

Backups

Each time your collection is closed (when closing Anki, switching profiles, or synchronizing your deck), Anki exports your collection into the backups folder. By default Anki will store up to 30 backups; you can adjust this in the preferences.

Automatic backups do not protect against disk or computer failure, and do not extend to your media. To keep your collections safe, please consider making manual backups too.

The easiest way to take a manual backup is to back up your entire Anki folder. Please make sure you close Anki first, as backups may be corrupt if run while Anki is open.

To restore from a backup, simply close Anki, open Documents/Anki/<profile name>/backups, and double-click on the most recent backup in order to import it. This will overwrite your whole collection with the backup copy. If you need to import only part of a backup (for instance, a single deck you messed up), you can do so by creating a new profile and importing the backup into there, then exporting the deck you want to restore and importing it into the other profile.

Anki also logs deleted notes to a text file called deleted.txt in your profile folder. These notes are in a text format that can be read by File>Import, though please note the import feature only supports a single note type at one time, so if you have deleted notes from different note types, you’ll need to split the file into separate files for each note type first.

Inaccessible Harddisk

If Anki can’t write to files in the Anki folder, a message will be displayed on startup saying that Anki can’t write to the harddisk, and Anki will close. If you’re unsure how to fix the permissions, please contact someone near you who is knowledgable about computers and can help you out.

Permissions of Temp Folder

Anki uses the system’s temporary folder to store temporary data. If the permissions of this folder have been changed from the default settings by a rogue app or buggy antivirus app, Anki will not function properly.

If you’re on a Windows 7 machine, the general steps to fix the problem are listed below. As this is somewhat complicated, please ask someone knowledgeable about Windows if you are not sure.

  1. Click on the start bar, and type in %temp% (including the percents), then hit enter.

  2. Go up one folder, and locate the temp folder. Right click on it, and choose Properties.

  3. In the security tab, click on Advanced.

  4. Click on the Owner tab. If you’re not listed as the owner, click the button to take ownership.

  5. On the permissions tab, ensure that you have full control. On a default W7 install the control will actually be inherited from c:\users\your-username.

Corrupt Collections

Anki uses a file format that is robust against program and computer crashes, but it’s still possible for your collection to become corrupt if the files are modified while Anki is open, stored on a network drive, or corrupted by a bug.

When you run Tools>Check Database, you will receive a message if Anki detects the file has been corrupted. The best way to recover from this is to restore from the most recent automatic backup, but if your backup is too old, then you can attempt to repair the corruption instead.

On Linux, make sure sqlite3 is installed. On a Mac, it should be installed already. On Windows, download http://www.sqlite.org/sqlite-3_6_23.zip.

Next, create a backup of your collection.anki2 file, in case something goes wrong with the steps below.

Linux/OSX

Open a terminal, change to the folder your collection is located in, and type:

sqlite3 collection.anki2 .dump > dump.txt

Open the resulting dump.txt file in a text editor, and look at the final line. If it reads "rollback;", change it to "commit;"

Then run the following in a terminal:

cat dump.txt | sqlite3 temp.file

Make sure you use temp.file - do not put collection.anki2 on the right, or you will blank out the file. When you’re done, proceed to the final step.

Windows

Copy the sqlite3.exe program and your deck to your desktop. Then go to Start>Run and type in cmd.exe.

If you’re on a recent Windows, the command prompt may not start on your desktop. If you don’t see desktop displayed in the command prompt, type something like the following, replacing administrator with your login name.

cd C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop

Then type:

sqlite3 collection.anki2 .dump > dump.txt

Open the resulting dump.txt file in a text editor, and look at the final line. If it reads "rollback;", change it to "commit;"

Then run the following in a terminal:

type dump.txt | sqlite3 temp.file

Make sure you use temp.file - do not put collection.anki2 on the right, or you will blank out the file. When you’re done, proceed to the final step.

Final Step

Check that you didn’t get an error message, and that temp.file is not empty. The procedure optimizes the collection in the process, so it’s normal for the new file to be somewhat smaller than the old one.

When you’ve confirmed the file is not empty, copy it over collection.anki2, making sure you still have a backup of the original version. Then start Anki and go to Tools>Check Database to make sure the collection has been successfully restored.

Graphs and Statistics

Card Info

You can display information about a card by clicking the Info button in the toolbar while browsing. Most of the displayed information should be self-explanatory. A few notes:

Position

Only shown when the card is new, it shows the order the card will appear in relative to other new cards. The position can be changed in the browser.

Interval

The delay from one review to the next. Times are abbreviated; "0s, 1m, 3h, 4d, 5mo, 6y" refers to seconds, minutes, hours, days, months and years respectively.

Ease

The approximate amount the interval will grow when you answer a review card with the "Good" button.

Statistics

The statistics window is accessed by clicking on the graphs icon in the top right of the main window, or by pressing Shift+S. The statistics window will show statistics from the currently selected deck and any subdecks. If you click on "collection" on the bottom left, statistics will be shown for your entire collection instead.

By default Anki will show you statistics for the previous month. You can change this to a year scope or deck life scope at the bottom. (The "today" section at the top is of course unaffected by this selection.)

Clicking on "Save Image" will save an image of the statistics to a file on your desktop to make it easy to share your statistics with others.

Note
When you delete notes, their review history is maintained in Anki. It will not be included when looking at statistics for a specific deck (as Anki has no way of knowing which deck the deleted cards belonged to), but will be included when you look at statistics for the whole collection.

Types of Cards

The stats window uses some terms that you may not be familiar with:

Mature

A mature card is one that has an interval of 21 days or greater.

Young

A young card is one that has an interval of less than 21 days, but is not in learning.

Learn

A learning card is one that is still in learning mode (using whatever steps may be defined in the deck’s options).

Relearn

A relearning card is a card that you have failed in review mode, thus returning it to learning mode to be relearned.

Unseen

An unseen card is one that has been added to your collection but has not yet entered learning mode. Unseen cards are sometimes referred to as "new" cards, especially when they are in the "new" queue to be shown for the first time.

Today

At the top of the statistics window is a brief list of textual statistics about the reviews that you have completed today. A “review” in this context is one answering of a card, so a card might count as multiple reviews if it needed to be seen multiple times, and a learning card could count as a “review.” A couple of the stats whose meaning may not be immediately obvious:

Again count

This is the number of reviews that you have failed (i.e., pressed Again on). The correct percentage listed afterwards is the number of cards you did not fail divided by the total number of cards you studied.

Learn, Review, Relearn, Filtered

The number of reviews that were learning cards, review cards, relearning cards, or studied in a filtered deck when not due.

The stats for the current day are not a good overall indicator of your learning progress; everyone has bad days and good days, and seeing that you got a lower percentage correct on a particular day should not be cause for concern. The remainder of the stats, which take longer periods of time into account, will give more useful information if you wish to try to change your study habits or scheduling settings based on your performance.

The “today” statistics are unaffected by the time period selected at the bottom of the window.

The Graphs

Forecast

This graph shows an estimated number of reviews that will be due on a given day in the future if you learn no new cards and fail no cards. The bars and the left axis show the number of cards due on each day if you study all cards each day, while the line and the right axis show the number of cards due on that day if you don’t study at all until then. Note that the forecast graph does not count reviews that are currently overdue, so if you have a large backlog, the overdue cards will not be displayed.

Review Count

This graph shows how many cards you have studied in the past. The bars may correspond to days, weeks, or months, depending on the time period you’ve selected at the bottom of the screen. The differently colored blocks show how many of the cards you answered on each day were mature, young, relearning, or learning cards. There is also a separate group for cards answered in a filtered/cram deck while they were not due. The line and the right axis shows the cumulative total for each type of review as time progresses across the graph (so at 0 days, it would display the number for the entire time period displayed on the graph).

Review Time

This graph works exactly like Review Count, except that it deals with the amount of time you spent on each card rather than the number of cards answered.

Intervals

This graph displays the number of cards that have a given interval (the delay between two reviews). The line and the right axis tell you what percentage of your cards have an interval of less than or equal to the time below that point. The time scope has a different effect on this graph than other graphs: rather than changing which cards or period of studying is included, it limits how far out the intervals are displayed to (so 14-month intervals are not displayed at all on a 1-year graph).

Hourly Breakdown

This graph shows what percentage of total reviews you have passed (i.e., not pressed Again on) during given hours. The larger, darker bars and left axis show the success rate; the thinner, lighter bars and right axis show the number of reviews you’ve made at that hour (so you know how significant the results are).

Answer Buttons

This graph shows how many times you’ve chosen the Again, Hard, Good, or Easy button while studying learning/new, young, and mature cards. Anki also displays the percentage of correct reviews for each type of card.

Cards Types

This pie chart shows what percentage of your deck or collection consists of mature, unseen, young/learn, and suspended cards. If you wish to calculate a more precise percentage, the key shows the exact number of cards in each section, and the total number of cards is displayed to the side.

Manual Analysis

If you’re interested in getting information from your statistics other than what Anki provides, you have several options.

One is to write an add-on that adds another graph or more details to the statistics window. There are several add-ons of this sort on AnkiWeb already, which you can look at to get an idea of how it works.

A more powerful and more complex option is to extract the review log information directly from Anki’s database and analyze it in an external program. Anki uses a database format called SQLite. There are many tools available for working with SQLite databases; one of the easiest to start with is called SQLite Browser, which will allow you to look around the database as well as export a CSV version of tables for import into another program.

The most important table for statistics is the 'revlog' table, which stores an entry for each review that you conduct. The columns are as follows:

id

The time at which the review was conducted, as the number of milliseconds that had passed since midnight UTC on January 1, 1970. (This is sometimes known as Unix epoch time, especially when in straight seconds instead of milliseconds.)

cid

The ID of the card that was reviewed. You can look up this value in the id field of the 'cards' table to get more information about the card, although note that the card could have changed between when the revlog entry was recorded and when you are looking it up. It is also the millisecond timestamp of the card’s creation time.

usn

This column is used to keep track of the sync state of reviews and provides no useful information for analysis.

ease

Which button you pressed at the end of the review (1 for Again, 4 for Easy).

ivl

The new interval that the card was pushed to after the review. Positive values are in days; negative values are in seconds (for learning cards).

lastIvl

The interval the card had before the review. Cards introduced for the first time have a last interval equal to the Again delay.

factor

The new ease factor of the card in permille (parts per thousand). If the ease factor is 2500, the card’s interval will be multiplied by 2.5 the next time you press Good.

time

The amount of time (in milliseconds) you spent on the question and answer sides of the card before selecting an ease button.

type

This is 0 for learning cards, 1 for review cards, 2 for relearn cards, and 3 for "cram" cards (cards being studied in a filtered deck when they are not due).

Media

Anki stores the sounds and images used in your notes in a folder next to the collection. For more on the folder location, please see the file locations section. When you add media within Anki, either by using the paperclip icon in the editor or by pasting it into a field, Anki will copy it from its original location into the media folder. This makes it easy to back up your collection’s media or move it to another computer.

You can use the Tools>Check Media menu option to scan your notes and media folder. It will generate a report of files in the media folder that are not used by any notes, and media referenced in notes but missing from your media folder. It does not scan question or answer templates, which is why you can’t place media references to fields in the template. If you need a static image or sound on every card, name it with a leading _ (e.g., '_dog.jpg') to tell Anki to ignore it when checking for media. If you delete media using the unused media check, Anki will move it into your operating system’s trash folder, so you can recover if you accidentally delete media that shouldn’t have been deleted.

Anki uses a program called mplayer in order to support sounds and videos. A wide variety of file formats are supported, but not all of these formats will work on AnkiWeb and the mobile clients. MP3 audio and MP4 video seems to be the most universally supported.

LaTeX support

LaTeX is a powerful typesetting system, which is ideal for entering mathematical formulas, chemical formulas, musical notation and so on. Anki provides some support for LaTeX, allowing you to enter LaTeX code in your notes. When you review a card, Anki will call LaTeX and display the generated image instead.

Installing and Assumed Knowledge

Anki’s LaTeX support is not turn-key: it is assumed that you know how to use LaTeX already, and that you have it installed. If you have no experience with LaTeX, please consult one of the many guides available on the internet. If you are having trouble with markup, please ask on a LaTeX forum.

To install LaTeX, on Windows use MiKTeX; on OSX use MacTex, and on Linux use your distro’s package manager. Dvipng must also be installed.

Note
On Windows, go to Settings in MikTek’s maintenance window, and make sure "Install missing packages on the fly" is set to "No", not to "Ask me first". If you continue to have difficulties, one user reported that running Anki as an administrator until all the packages were fetched helped.
Note
On OSX, LaTeX has only been tested with MacTex and BasicTex. If you use BasicTex, you need to install dvipng separately, with the following command:
sudo tlmgr update --self; sudo tlmgr install dvipng

The command may not be on the path, so you may need to provide the full path, eg /usr/local/texlive/2014basic/bin/x86_64-darwin/tlmgr.

Note
If you are not using the above LaTeX packages, you will need to use the "edit LaTeX" add-on to specify the full path to latex and dvipng.

LaTeX on Web/Mobile

When you review a card with LaTeX on it, Anki will generate an image for that LaTeX and place the image in your collection’s media folder for future use. The web & mobile clients will display these images if they already exist, but can not generate the images on their own.

To avoid having to review all your cards at least once before you can study on the other clients, Anki can generate the images in bulk for you. To generate all the images, please go to Tools>Check Media. After that, syncing should upload the generated media to AnkiWeb and the other clients.

Example

The most general way to input LaTeX content is to surround it with [latex][/latex] tags. There’s a shortcut button for this documented in the editor section.

For example, entering the following on the front of an Anki flashcard:

Does [latex]\begin{math}\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}\end{math}[/latex] converge?

will produce this when the flashcard is viewed:

img/convergence_question.png

The formula in the example above is called a text formula, because it is displayed right within the non-mathematical text. In contrast, the following example shows a displayed formula:

Does the sum below converge?

[latex]\begin{displaymath}\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}\end{displaymath}[/latex]

img/convergence_question_2.png

Text formulas and display formulas are the most common type of LaTeX expressions, so Anki provides abbreviated versions of them. Expressions of the form:

[latex]\begin{math}...\end{math}[/latex]

can be shortened to

[$]...[/$]

and expressions of the form

[latex]\begin{displaymath}...\end{displaymath}[/latex]

can be shortened to

[$$]...[/$$]

For example, the two LaTeX snippets shown before are equivalent to

Does [$]\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}[/$] converge?

and

Does the sum below converge?

[$$]\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}[/$$]

respectively.

LaTeX packages

Anki allows you to customize the LaTeX preamble so you can import custom packages for chemistry, music and so on. For example, imagine you find an example file for chemtex on the internet:

\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{report}
\usepackage{chemtex}
\begin{document}

\initial
\begin{figure}[h]\centering
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\ethene{H}{H$_3$C}{CH$_3$}{Br}}
\hfil
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\cbranch{H}{S}{H}{S}{C}{S}{}{S}{H}
  \xi=-200 \cright{}{Q}{C}{D}{O}{S}{OH}}
\hfil
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\hetisix{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{O}{Q}{O}
  \xi=-171 \fuseup{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{D}{Q}{D}{Q}{D}}
\caption{Chemie mit {\tt CHEMTEX}\label{a1}}
\end{figure}

\end{document}

Firstly, follow the documentation of the package and MiKTeX/MacTex in order to install the package. To check the package is working, you’ll want to put code like the above into a .latex file and test you can compile it from the command line. Once you’ve confirmed that the package is available and working, we can integrate it with Anki.

To use the package with Anki, click "Add" in the main window, then click the note type selection button. Click the "Manage" button, then select the note type you plan to use and click "Options". The LaTeX header and footer are shown. The header will look something like:

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\special{papersize=3in,5in}
\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}
\pagestyle{empty}
\setlength{\parindent}{0in}
\begin{document}

To use chemtex, you’d add the usepackage line in the earlier example, so it looks like:

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\special{papersize=3in,5in}
\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}
\usepackage{chemtex}
\pagestyle{empty}
\setlength{\parindent}{0in}
\begin{document}

After that, you should be able to include lines like the following in your Anki cards:

[latex]\ethene{H}{H$_3$C}{CH$_3$}{Br}[/latex]

LaTeX Conflicts

It’s not uncommon for {{ and }} to pop up in LaTeX code when writing mathematical equations. To ensure that your LaTeX equations don’t conflict with Anki’s field replacements, it’s possible to change the separator to something else.

For example, if you have a template:

{{latex field}}

Changing it to the following will make it unlikely that the LaTeX will conflict:

{{=<% %>=}}
<%latex field%>

While this most commonly occurs with LaTeX, the solution presented here will work in any situation where you need to include {{ }} on cards, regardless of whether LaTeX is used or not.

When using cloze deletions, you cannot change the double braces used to mark cloze deletions; instead, you can put a space between any double closing braces that do not indicate the end of the cloze, so

{{c1::[$]\frac{foo}{\frac{bar}{baz}}[/$] blah blah blah.}}

will not work, but

{{c1::[$]\frac{foo}{\frac{bar}{baz} }[/$] blah blah blah.}}

will (and LaTeX ignores spaces in math mode, so your equation will render the same).

Unsafe commands

Anki prohibits certain commands like \input or \def from being used on cards or in templates, because allowing them could allow malicious shared decks to damage your system. (To be on the safe side, these commands are prohibited even in comments, so if you’re getting this error but don’t think you’ve used one, please double-check any comments you have in your headers, templates, and cards.) If you need to use these commands, please add them to a system package and import that package as described in the previous section.

Miscellanea

Menu Shortcuts

On Windows/Linux you can hold down the alt key and press a highlighted letter to activate a particular menu.

OS X doesn’t support this feature, but it does allow you to assign shortcuts to specific menu items instead. Please see http://lifehacker.com/343328/create-a-keyboard-shortcut-for-any-menu-action-in-any-program for more information.

Debug Console

Sometimes you may be asked to use the debug console to change a setting or check something. Unless asked to enter text in the "debug console", you will probably not need this. Advanced users may like to read more about it in the add-ons page, linked below.

When asked to enter text into the "debug console", please start Anki, and in the main window, press Ctrl+: (that is the control key and colon key at the same time), or on a Mac, Command+: (command key and colon key at the same time). When you do so, a new window should pop up.

In the window that has popped up, please paste the text you were asked to paste in the top section. When you’ve done so, please press Ctrl+Return (Command+Return on a Mac), and some text should appear in the bottom section. If you’ve been asked to paste the resulting output, please copy it from the bottom area, and paste it back to the support person.

If you press Ctrl+Shift+Return instead of just Ctrl+Return, Anki will try to print the result rather than doing what you asked it to. If you are getting unexpected errors, please make sure you’re not holding down the Shift key.

Add-ons

Anki’s capabilities can be extended with add-ons. Add-ons can provide features like extra support for specific languages, extra control over scheduling, and so on.

To browse the list of available add-ons, select the Tools>Add-ons>Browse & Install menu item. You can also use Tools>Add-ons to check which add-ons are installed.

Some add-ons have options or customizations that are only accessible by editing them. To edit an add-on, go to Tools>Add-ons>[add-on name]>Edit. Please be careful when editing - special characters and whitespace is important, so if you see something like:

    line1
    line2
    line3

…and you accidentally change it to the following, Anki will throw an error when it is restarted:

    line1
   line2
    line3

Many add-on authors include their email address in the add-on, so if you need to get in touch with the author, editing the add-on and looking at the top of the file may help.

If you have downloaded an add-on that is not working properly, or if you accidentally made a mistake when editing an add-on, you can use the "Delete" option in the menu to remove it.

To learn how to write your own add-ons, please see the add-on writing guide.

Contributing

Sharing Decks Publicly

To share decks with the general public, synchronize them with AnkiWeb, then log into AnkiWeb and click on "Share" from the menu next to the deck you wish to share.

If you shared a deck previously (including with previous versions of Anki), you can update it by clicking "Share" as above. Please ensure the name of the deck in your account exactly matches the name shown in the shared deck listing, or you’ll end up creating a new shared deck rather than updating the old one. Updating a shared deck will not reset the download counts or ratings. You can delete a shared deck that you have uploaded using the Delete button on the shared deck’s page.

Note
When updating a deck, AnkiWeb expects the deck to be at the same location as before. If you shared a deck when it was called "Korean Verbs" for example, and then renamed it to "Korean::Korean Verbs", resharing will not be able to update the existing copy.

Sharing Decks Privately

If you’d like to share decks with a limited group of people (such as a study group or class) rather than the general public, you can do so by sharing them outside of AnkiWeb.

To share a deck privately, go to the File menu and choose Export. Select a single deck (not "All Decks"), and turn off "include scheduling information". This will produce an .apkg file which you can share with others.

You can share the .apkg file by emailing it to people, placing it on a website or shared folder, or using a free file sharing service like Dropbox or Google Drive and sending people a link.

Both the computer version and mobile clients make it easy to import from an apkg file simply by clicking or tapping on it. AnkiWeb does not have the ability to import apkg files however, so the recipients of your deck will need to have the computer version or Anki on their mobile device.

When a user imports an .apkg file, cards that already exist in their collection will be ignored and any new cards will be added. As long as they use the same note type, modified cards will also be updated. To prevent data loss, cards that have been deleted in the new apkg file will not be deleted in the user’s collection, so if you need to delete cards from users' decks for whatever reason, you will need to contact them about it.

Sharing Add-ons

Please see the add-on documentation above.

App Translations

Translations can be done directly from the translation website.

Launchpad will guess which languages you can translate based on the country you’re connecting from. If the language you want to translate to doesn’t appear, sign up for a launchpad account, and in your profile, click the ! next to preferred languages to the language you want to translate.

There are some special markers in text that you need to be aware of, and careful when translating:

  • A string like Cards: %d or Error: %s means that the %d/%s part will be replaced with some other value. The characters must remain the same in the translation, so a translation may look like カード: %d.

  • The same applies to text like %(a)d of %(b)d - it would be translated like %(a)d von %(b)d. If you need to reverse A and B in your language, that’s fine as long as the text remains the same.

  • Menu items have an & to indicate which character is the shortcut key, such as &File. In languages that use roman text, you can place the & over a different character such as &Datei; in other languages there may be a different convention. Japanese for example includes the roman character afterwards instead, like ファイル (&F)

  • Some strings have plural support, so that "0 cards", "1 card", "5 cards" can be represented properly in your language. In these instances you’ll need to enter the 2 or 3 different forms.

Sometimes it will not be clear what a string refers to, and you may want to see the context. Below every string to be translated, you’ll see a line like this:

Located in ../dtop/aqt/deckbrowser.py:299

If you strip off the first "../dtop" section, you’re left with something like "aqt/deckbrowser.py:299". You can then visit https://github.com/dae/anki/, locate the same filename, and click on it. The file will be displayed with line numbers on the left, and by matching up the line numbers (they may differ by a few lines sometimes), you may be able to get a better understanding of what the string refers to.

If you see forms in the string like the above example, the strings will generally be obvious. If you do need to understand the context however, things are a little more complicated, as those files are automatically generated from an interface description instead. Please go to https://github.com/dae/anki/tree/master/designer and locate the same filename and click on it. We can’t rely on line numbers in this case, so please use the browser’s find option to find the string in the file. The lines immediately surrounding the found text may give a clue as to its meaning.

If you find a string that you’re unsure how to translate, or would like to start a discussion with fellow native speakers on the best way to translate something, please feel free to start a thread in the Anki forums.

Any translations that were made at least a few hours before a new Anki release are automatically included in the next release. Entirely new languages need to be added manually, so please contact us if that applies to your translation. If you’d like to see your name in the About screen as a contributor, please drop Damien a line.

If you’d like to try out your translations without waiting for a new release, you can export a .mo file from the translation website. If you then move that .mo file into Anki’s installation folder, overwriting an existing .mo file with the same language code (in the locale folder), Anki will display the new translations when it is next started.

Translating the Manual

If you’re a fairly technical user, you may want to translate the source file of the manual, and compile it yourself with asciidoc. You can also use that github repo to keep track of changes to the manual in the future.

If that sounds complicated, an easier way is to visit this page and use File>Save As to save the manual to disk. You can then import it into Microsoft Word or similar software, and translate it that way.

When you’re happy with the translation, you can either put it up on your website and I can link to it, or I can host the translated file on Anki’s website (but if you’re planning to make frequent updates, the former is a better choice). If you’d like, you can post it before you’re done and we can link to it in the list of in-progress translations below.

Another option is to put your translation on a wiki, so that other users can contribute to it. There are many sites such as Wikia that will allow you to easily create your own wiki for free. (The English version once used a wiki; we found that we got too many unhelpful contributions and had to spend too much time correcting them, but your mileage may vary.)

The following translations are currently in progress:

If you would like to help with one of these translations, please contact us on TenderApp and we will put you in touch with the user(s) currently working on it.

Contributing Code

Anki’s source code is available at http://github.com/dae

If you have bugfixes or believe your changes would benefit many people, please have a look at the LICENSE file, and if you agree to the license, drop Damien an email or a Github pull request.

常见问题

我还未学习很久,而现在离下次复习的间隔太大了!

当你每天使用 Anki 时,每张回答正确的卡片都获得了更大的复习间隔。假设每次 good 将间隔翻了一倍,下次复习需要陆续等待 5 天,10 天,20 天,40天,如此下去。

When people return to their deck after weeks or months of no study, they’re often surprised by the length intervals have grown to. This is because Anki considers the actual time the card was unseen, not just the time it was scheduled for. Thus if the card was scheduled for 5 days but you didn’t study for a month, the next interval will be closer to 60 days than 10 days.

This is a good thing. If you have successfully remembered a card after a one month wait, chances are you’ll remember it again after a longer wait, too. The same principles which make SRS effective in normal use apply when you’re studying after a delay, too. It also makes little sense to schedule a card for 10 days in the future if you were able to easily answer it after a whole month’s wait - you’d be going backwards.

Resetting the deck is an even worse solution. When returning to a deck after a long absence, you may have forgotten many of your cards, but chances are you haven’t forgotten them all. Resetting the entire deck means you have to waste time studying material you already know.

Now you may find overdue cards that you were able to recall, but not comfortably, since they were not reviewed when they should have been. To counter this, Anki treats the delay differently depending on your answer. If you find a card easy, the last interval plus the full delay are added together, and then used to calculate the next interval. When you answer good, only half the delay is used. And when you answer hard, only a quarter of the delay is used. So if a card was due in 5 days, and it’s answered 20 days late, the next times you’d end up with are approximately:

  • Hard: (5 + 20/4) * 1.2 = 12 days

  • Good: (5 + 20/2) * 2.5 = 37.5 days

  • Easy: (5 + 20) * 3.25 = 81.25 days

(the factors will actually vary depending on your performance in the deck)

If you find a card hard, the next interval is quite conservative and is less than the last wait (25 days). If you find it good, the next interval is only about 50% higher. And easy increases the interval aggressively as usual.

So it is recommended that you study as normal when you return to Anki after a period of absence. But if you absolutely must reset the deck, you can select the cards to reset in the browser, and use Edit>Reschedule.

Can I do multiple-choice questions?

Multiple choice questions are a poor review tool for a number of reasons. The reason they are commonly used in an academic setting is because they are easy to mark, and they allow the person studying to demonstrate their ability to recognize the correct answer even if they can’t produce it themselves.

Furthermore, good multiple choice questions have well chosen "distractors" - answers that are similar to the correct answer. A computer can look for similary spelt words, but it is not capable of chosing good distractors for more complicated topics.

If you are studying for a test and you have a sample test with a multiple choice question like the following:

Q: What animal has a really long neck?

A: 1. A monkey. 2. A giraffe. 3. A donkey. 4. A snail.

Then that question should be rewritten in Anki as follows:

Q: What animal has a really long neck?

A: A giraffe.

Or you can add your own choices:

Q: What animal has a really long neck? (dog/cat/giraffe/penguin)

A: A giraffe.

Anki supports links between cards of a note, but not between unrelated cards. Imagine are you studying Japanese and aiming to be able to both recognize and reproduce the Japanese. You may enter the word "ookii", which means "big", and tell Anki to generate two cards - ookii→big and big→ookii.

In the above situation Anki can space reviews of those two sibling cards out so that they don’t appear one after the other (see sibling spacing in the link at the top of this document).

Some people want to extend this link between arbitrary cards. They want to be able to tell Anki "after showing me this card, show me that card", or "don’t show me that card until I know this card well enough". This might sound like a nice idea in theory, but in practice it is not practical.

For one, unlike the sibling card case above, you would have to define all the relations yourself. Entering new notes into Anki would become a complicated process, as you’d have to search through the rest of the deck and assign relationships between the old and new material.

Secondly, remember that Anki is using an algorithm to determine when the optimum time to show you material again is. Adding constraints to card display that cause cards to display earlier or later than they were supposed to will make the spaced repetition system less effective, leading to more work than necessary, or forgotten cards.

The most effective way to use Anki is to make each note you see independent from other notes. Instead of trying to join similar words together, you’ll be better off if you can determine the differences between them. Synonyms are rarely completely interchangeable - they tend to have nuances attached, and it’s not unusual for a sentence to become strange if one synonym is replaced with another.

Continuing with the Japanese example earlier, imagine you want to learn the word "dekai", which also roughly translates to "big", but is a more colloquial expression. If you still want to review in both directions, you might make the English prompt of this word "big (more casual)". The further you progress in your language studies though, the more of a burden it becomes to define the differences between similar words, which is why cards asking you to produce a particular word are best left to the early stage of your studies. With a strong base vocabulary, moving towards recognition-based study makes more sense, as we all have a much larger passive vocabulary than our active vocabulary.

As for ensuring that difficult material is introduced after easier material, a number of existing tools are available. New cards are by default introduced in the order they are added to the deck, so as long as the learning materials or sources of information you are using are adequately graded for your level, material should appear in order of easiness.

Can I give my notes an arbitrary number of fields?

Notes are designed to represent closely related information, and to make it easy to reorganize where that information appears on a card. In the context of language learning, notes are useful for representing things like a phrase-translation pair, a phrase-translation-reading triplet, and so on. All of these relationships are 1:1 - a given phrase has only one reading, and one translation. (1)

Because of their ability to tie related pieces of information together, some people try to use notes to tie less closely related information in their deck together. For example, if they come across two sentences with the word "completely":

  • He was completely confused.

  • That was completely uncalled for.

Then they put those two sentences in the same note, under the rationale that since they share a word, they are related. But what if the user comes across another example sentence?

  • The book confused her.

That sentence shares the word "confused" with a previous sentence. So should it be in the note for "confused"? Or the note for "completely"? Or both?

Unlike the phrase-translation pairs mentioned above, if you say sentences are related if they share a word, then sentences have a many:many relationship. That is, sentence A may be related to sentence B and C, sentence B may be related to A and D, and so on. Because the relationships are complex and overlapping, notes are not a good way to represent them.

There seem to be two main reasons people try to represent such relationships in notes:

  • "Because it’s neater to keep all the information in one place". This may seem to be the case, but in reality you really don’t save much. If you want to see all example sentences that contain the word "completely" and each sentence is in a different note, all you have to do is search for "completely".

  • "Because I want Anki to separate reviews of cards that share the same word". This is related to the previous FAQ question. Defining the links between cards is time consuming, and if it were done automatically and every card that shared a word were separated from other cards that shared a word, it would be both computationally prohibitive, and would likely lead to a situation where nothing could be shown because it was all related to something else. Yes, it’s not ideal for two sentences containing the same word to be shown right after each other, but if you add new cards in a random order such a situation is unlikely, and the downsides of trying to prevent such a situation aren’t worth it. And even if such a solution were introduced, it wouldn’t stop you from encountering the words in the real world.

(1) It is possible for different people to translate the same phrase in different ways, and different dialects may read the same word differently, but that is not relevant to the discussion.

我可以搭建自己的 AnkiWeb 吗?

抱歉,目前我们只提供官方的 AnkiWeb 服务。

为什么 Android 版是免费的,而 iOS 版不是?

编写 Anki 桌面版,AnkiWeb 和 Anki 移动版目前是我的全职工作,因此我需要取得收入的途径。既然桌面版和 Web 版已经免费提供给大家,我目前只能依赖销售 iOS App 获得经济收入。

AnkiDroid 则是由一群分散在世界各地的志愿者编写完成。鉴于他们的工作建立在我免费提供的桌面版的基础上(并且依赖 AnkiWeb 以保持牌组同步),他们最终决定免费提供 AnkiDroid 给大家。

Anki 使用的间隔重复算法是怎样的?

Anki 最初采用的是 SuperMemo 的 SM5 算法。然而 Anki 默认需要在回答卡片之前确定下次复习的间隔,这与 SM5 算法有一些根本性的冲突。目前采用的 SM2 算法与后续的新版算法间的关键区别是:

  • SM2 算法基于你在一张卡片上的表现决定下次复习这张卡片的时间

  • SM3+ 算法基于你在一张卡片上的表现决定下次复习这张及类似卡片的时间

后者通过综合考虑一组卡片——而不单单是一张卡片——的表现,计算得出更准确的复习间隔。当你的学习较为规律,并且牌组中卡片的难度较为相似时,这类算法的效果更好。然而一旦不一致被引入这个平衡(不同难度的卡片,并非每天在固定时间学习),SM3+ 更容易作出错误的复习间隔时间猜测,从而导致部分卡片出现得过于频繁或荒于复习。

除此之外,由于 SM3+ 会动态调整“优化因子”表,选择“困难 (Hard)”有时会得到比“简单 (Easy)”还长的复习间隔。因为 SuperMemo 中隐藏了下次复习时间,所以用户们并不知情。

在调研过这几个算法后,Anki 的作者决定使用 SM2 算法。因为 SM3+ 算法在复习间隔估计上些许优化,无法抵消错误估计带来的风险。SM2 算法的结果更加可预测,对终端用户更为直观,而 SM3+ 算法则隐藏了所有的细节并要求用户对其绝对地信任(即使系统可能会犯错)。

Anki 的实际算法基于 SM2,但在以下方面略有不同:

  • SM2 defines an initial interval of 1 day then 6 days. With Anki, you have full control over the length of the initial learning steps. Anki understands that it can be necessary to see a new card a number of times before you’re able to memorize it, and those initial "failures" don’t mean you need to be punished by being shown the failed card many times over the course of a few days. Performance during the learning stage does not reflect performance in the retaining stage.

  • Anki uses 4 choices for answering review cards, not 6. There is only one fail choice, not 3. The reason for this is that failure comprises a small amount of total reviews, and thus adjusting a card’s ease can be sufficiently done by simply varying the positive answers.

  • Answering cards later than scheduled will be factored into the next interval calculation, so you receive a boost to cards that you were late in answering but still remembered.

  • Like SM2, Anki’s failure button resets the card interval by default. But the user can choose to make the card take some steps back rather than being reset completely. Also, you can elect to review failed mature cards on a different day, instead of the same day.

  • Remembered easily not only increments the ease factor, but adds an extra bonus to the current interval calculation. Thus, answering remembered easily is a little more aggressive than the standard SM2 algorithm.

  • Successive failures while cards are in learning do not result in further decreases to the card’s ease. A common complaint with the standard SM algorithms is that repeated failings of a card cause the card to get stuck in "low interval hell". In Anki, the initial acquisition process does not influence a card’s ease.

若想查看 SM2 算法的详细描述,您可以访问 http://www.supermemo.com/english/ol/sm2.htm

您还可以查看 Anki 源代码中的 sched.py 文件了解排程部分的代码。以下是一个简单的总结 (请参阅 记忆库选项 小节中提到的用 斜体 标出的选项)。

如果您选择…

Again

The card is placed into relearning mode, the ease is decreased by 20 percentage points (that is, 20 is subtracted from the ease value, which is in units of percentage points), and the current interval is multiplied by the value of new interval (this interval will be used when the card exits relearning mode).

Hard

The card’s ease is decreased by 15 percentage points and the current interval is multiplied by 1.2.

Good

The current interval is multiplied by the current ease. The ease is unchanged.

Easy

The current interval is multiplied by the current ease times the easy bonus and the ease is increased by 15 percentage points.

For Hard, Good, and Easy, the next interval is additionally multiplied by the interval modifier. If the card is being reviewed late, the number of days that the card is overdue will be added to the current interval before doing these calculations.

There are a few limitations on the scheduling values that cards can take. Eases will never be decreased below 130%; SuperMemo’s research has shown that eases below 130% tend to result in cards becoming due more often than is useful and annoying users. Intervals will never be increased beyond the value of maximum interval. Finally, all new intervals (except Again) will always be at least one day longer than the previous interval.

Note
After you select an ease button, Anki also applies a small amount of random “fuzz” to prevent cards that were introduced at the same time and given the same ratings from sticking together and always coming up for review on the same day. This fuzz does not appear on the interval buttons, so if you’re noticing a slight discrepancy between what you select and the intervals your cards actually get, this is probably the cause.

资源

您可以访问 SuperMemo 的网站上获取更多关于间隔重复和记忆的优秀资源:http://www.supermemo.com/